The decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of radiologically-contaminated facilities presents numerous challenges. Many tasks are involved, each of which requires adherence to a complex array of federal and state regulations and policies, attention to health and safety issues for workers and the public, monitoring and management of schedules and costs, and interaction with a potentially large number of stakeholders who have an interest in the present activities and future plans for sites undergoing D&D. Since large-scale D&D operations at nuclear facilities began in the 1970s, one of the most noticeable advances has been dramatic decreases in decommissioning cost. This change is the result of a combination of accumulated decommissioning operational experience reducing the high initial cost estimates (which were high due to uncertainties and poorly defined boundaries), evolution of regulatory guidance, and continuously-developing technologies.
A large body of knowledge has already been accumulated on D&D operations. At the present time, approximately 90 commercial power reactors, 250 research reactors, 100 mines, 5 reprocessing facilities, and 14 fuel fabrication plants have been retired from operation, with some having been fully dismantled. In addition, the largest environmental cleanup projects ever undertaken are in progress or have recently been completed at several large DOE facilities in the nuclear weapons complex. Technologies developed for the D&D portions of these cleanups are part of the lessons learned from these projects.
This training introduces regulators, cleanup contractors, site owners/operators, and technology providers to ITRC's Technical/Regulatory Guidance, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Radiologically-Contaminated Facilities (RAD-5, 2008), created by ITRC's Radionuclides Team. The curriculum is composed of four modules as follows:
Module 1: Introduction and Regulatory Basis for D&D
Module 2: Factors for Implementing D&D
Module 3: Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) Calculators
Module 4: Case Studies and Lessons Learned