U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Recent Additions

FY 2015 Brownfields Area-Wide Planning (BF AWP) Grant Guidelines

Posted: July 25, 2014

EPA is announcing the availability of funding to eligible entities who wish to develop an area-wide plan for brownfields assessment, cleanup, and subsequent reuse. This funding is for research, technical assistance, and/or training activities directed to one or more brownfield site(s) located in a specific area (such as a neighborhood, district, local commercial corridor, community waterfront or city block). Each project funded under this grant must result in an area-wide plan which includes specific plan implementation strategies for assessing, cleaning up, and reusing the brownfields site(s) as well as related brownfields and project area revitalization strategies. EPA anticipates awarding approximately 20 projects in total, funded at up to $200,000 each. Please note that applicants who received a BF AWP grant from EPA in Fiscal Year 2010 or 2013 (FY10 or FY13) are not eligible to apply under this competition. The proposal submission deadline is September 22, 2014.

EPA's 2014-2015 SBIR Phase I Solicitation, July 30, 2014, 2:00-3:00 pm EDT

Posted: July 24, 2014

Join EPA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program for an informational webinar on the 2014-2015 SBIR Phase I solicitation. Learn about EPA's SBIR program, this year's solicitation topics, and how to apply for an SBIR contract. EPA SBIR program experts will be available to answer questions during a question & answer (Q&A) session following the presentation. EPA is calling for small businesses to apply for Phase I awards for up to $100,000 to demonstrate proof of concept in one of the following topic areas: air and climate, manufacturing, toxic chemicals, water, building materials, food waste, and homeland security. Phase I awardees are eligible to receive Phase II funding, up to $300,000 for two years, through an additional application process.

Frequently Asked Questions About Monitored Natural Attenuation in Groundwater

Posted: June 18, 2014

This new report covers MNA as an evolving technology, the basis for MNA, new contaminants for the MNA lineup, new techniques and tools, emerging issues for evaluating MNA as a remedy, and implementation and site closure.

Chlorinated Solvent Source Zone Remediation

Posted: June 18, 2014

Remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones is very difficult, at times controversial, and must be based on state-of-the-art knowledge of the behavior of nonaqueous phase liquids in the subsurface, as well as site-specific geology, chemistry, biology, and hydrogeology. This peer-reviewed volume begins with an overview of current practice that serves as an introduction to the rest of the book. The second chapter summarizes the challenges involved in source-zone remediation. Subsequent chapters discuss source-zone characterization issues and techniques, responses of downgradient plumes to source remediation, remediation modeling, the use of mass flux and mass discharge information, hydraulic displacement and recovery, in situ chemical oxidation, in situ chemical reduction, enhanced flushing with cosolvents and surfactants, in situ bioremediation, monitored natural attenuation, combined remedies, and costs of source zone treatment. View the table of contents and chapter abstracts at

Assessment of the Natural Attenuation of NAPL Source Zones and Post-Treatment NAPL Source Zone Residuals

Posted: July 8, 2014

This project demonstrated a generalized data-driven paradigm for the assessment of source zone natural attenuation (SZNA) at chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon (CAH) cleanup sites. The method uses multiple lines of evidence and macroscopic mass balances, leading to confirmation of SZNA and quantification of the total mass loss rate resulting from degradation, dissolved-phase transport, and volatilization. Application of the method was demonstrated at three field sites, with multiple events per site spread out over about three years. The mass loss rates were relatively consistent over time for each site, but varied from site to site, ranging between about 1 to 10 kg/y at two sites and as high as about 600 kg/y at the third site.

Validation of a Novel Bioassay for Low-Level Perchlorate Determination

Posted: July 8, 2014

An enzymatic bioassay for determining the amount of perchlorate in an aqueous sample was developed initially under SERDP Project ER-1530. Under ESTCP Project ER-201030, the method was examined further to (1) compare benchtop bioassay results from testing in the primary investigator's lab to results from a reference analytical method performed by a commercial lab, and (2) compare results with a benchtop bioassay kit format tested by site field personnel to the site's routine perchlorate detection method (results varied). Because performance of the bioassay was insufficient to warrant proceeding with its field testing in a kit format, the focus of activities shifted to attempting to identify factors that interfere with the benchtop bioassay in order to determine whether operations and performance could be improved.

Special Series: Passive Sampling Methods for Contaminated Sediments

Posted: July 8, 2014

This special series of six Open Access papers was generated from the SETAC Technical Workshop, "Guidance on Passive Sampling Methods to Improve Management of Contaminated Sediments," held November 2012 in Costa Mesa, California. Forty-five experts&emdash;passive sampling method (PSM) developers, users, and decision-makers from academia, government, and industry&emdash;convened to review the state of science to gain consensus on PSM applications in assessing management actions on contaminated sediments. Recent advances in PSMs offer an improvement in risk-based decision-making because bioavailability of sediment contaminants can be directly quantified. The following topics are covered:
  1. Building consensus to improve decision making (pp 163-166).
  2. State of the science for organic contaminants (pp 167-178).
  3. State of the science for metals (pp 179-196).
  4. Scientific rationale supporting use of freely dissolved concentrations (pp 197-209).
  5. Practical guidance for selection, calibration, and implementation (pp 210-223).
  6. Risk assessment and management (pp 224-236).

Remedial Action Completion Report (CDRL A001B) and Preliminary Closeout Report, Former Air Force Plant PJKS, Waterton Canyon, Colorado

Posted: July 23, 2014

A pilot study conducted at PJKS in 2004-2005 to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ anaerobic reductive dechlorination (ARD) of TCE and NDMA in bedrock source areas showed a decline in TCE contamination, which in 2006 led to the expansion of an interim corrective measure to stimulate ARD in the D-1 area groundwater plume. Horizontal and vertical injection wells delivered sodium lactate, emulsified edible oil (EEO), nutrients, and Dehalococcoides (dhc) to the Fountain Formation aquifer. In 2008, two full-scale biobarriers were constructed via injection of EEO, sodium lactate, and dhc into direct-push boreholes to target the alluvial transition groundwater areas, provide a barrier to plume migration, and further deplete TCE contamination in the downgradient plume. A technical impracticability waiver is recorded in the ROD for NDMA in the crystalline bedrock due to geological and technological limitations, although the VOCs in the bedrock are expected to meet MCLs.

Hexavalent Chromium Removal: Research Project Report to the California Department of Public Health

Posted: July 23, 2014

This report provides technical feasibility and cost data for removing Cr(VI) from drinking water. In spring 2010, the city of Glendale, California, constructed two demonstration facilities consisting of a 425 gpm treatment using weak-base ion exchange (WBA) and a 100 gpm system using reduction/coagulation/filtration (RCF). The WBA resin converts Cr(VI) to Cr(III), retains Cr(III) on the resin, and can achieve levels <1 ppb Cr(VI). The RCF coagulation and filtration processes are similar to conventional water treatment, but ferrous sulfate (rather than ferric iron) is used to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III), in the process producing iron floc with which the Cr(III) adsorbs or coprecipitates. The RCF process with granular media filtration can reliably achieve Cr(VI) concentrations <1 ppb and total Cr concentrations <5 ppb; however, due to the multiple treatment process steps, RCF is relatively labor intensive. Both systems achieved the target Cr level of 5 ppb. The RCF was shut down in July 2012, and the WBA continues to operate.

A Multi-Site Survey to Identify the Scale of the 1,4-Dioxane Problem at Contaminated Groundwater Sites

Posted: July 23, 2014

Investigators used intensive data mining to identify and evaluate >2,000 sites in California where groundwater has been affected by chlorinated solvents and/or 1,4-dioxane (dioxane). Dioxane was detected at 194 of the sites, with 95% containing one or more chlorinated solvents. Dioxane frequently co-occurs with 1,1,1-TCA (76% of the study sites); however, no dioxane analyses were conducted at 332 (67%) of the 1,1,1-TCA detection sites. At sites where dioxane has been identified, plumes are dilute but not large (median maximal concentration of 365 µg/L; median plume length of 269 m) and have been delineated to a similar extent as typically co-occurring chlorinated solvents. At sites where dioxane and chlorinated solvents co-occur, dioxane plumes frequently are shorter than the chlorinated solvent plumes (62%). Study results suggest that dioxane has not migrated beyond chlorinated solvent plumes and existing monitoring networks at the majority of sites, and that the primary risk is the large number of sites where dioxane likely is present but has not been identified.

A Risk/Benefit Appraisal for the Application of Nano-Scale Zero Valent Iron (NVZI) for the Remediation of Contaminated Sites

Posted: July 23, 2014

This report discusses the relative risks and benefits of NZVI usage for in situ remediation (i.e., the potential for the NZVI treatment agent itself to present human health or environmental risks) and its sustainability as a technique; identifies the areas where further investigation might be required; and provides an overview of NZVI use in full-scale, pilot, and lab studies to date. This paper is intended to help stakeholders by identifying key issues and providing a basis for evidence-based decisions.