U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Recent Additions

CLU-IN Highlights for FY 2014

Posted: November 21, 2014

As a result of your interests, in the past Fiscal Year the Clean Up Information Network (CLU-IN)
  • received over 2.5 million site visits
  • distributed over 700,000 documents downloads
  • hosted more than 120 internet seminars attended by more than 20,000 live participants
  • offered nearly 750,000 views/downloads of CLUIN archived internet seminars
We welcome your continued input on resources and information shared through the Clean Up Information Network. If you have comments or suggestions, please share them with us.

FY 2016 SERDP Solicitations Released

Posted: November 7, 2014

The Department of Defense's Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is seeking environmental research and development proposals for funding beginning in FY 2016. Projects will be selected through a competitive process. The Core Solicitation provides funding opportunities for basic and applied research and advanced technology development related to the SERDP program areas of Environmental Restoration (ER), Munitions Response (MR), Resource Conservation and Climate Change (RC), and Weapons Systems and Platforms (WP). The SEED Solicitation provides funding opportunities for work that will investigate innovative environmental approaches that entail high technical risk or require supporting data to provide proof of concept. Funding is limited to not more than $150,000 and projects are approximately one year in duration. This year, SERDP is requesting SEED proposals for the Munitions Response and Weapons Systems and Platforms program areas. All Core pre-proposals are due Thursday, January 8, 2015. SEED proposals are due Tuesday, March 10, 2015.

Petroleum Vapor Intrusion: Fundamentals of Screening, Investigation, and Management

Posted: October 30, 2014

Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) is the process by which volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) released as vapors from light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPL), petroleum-contaminated soils, or petroleum-contaminated groundwater migrate through the vadose zone and into overlying buildings. This Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) guidance document uses a scientifically-based approach to support improved decision making at potential petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) sites by employing an eight-step process. By applying this approach, decision makers can confidently screen out sites, and therefore focus limited resources on the small fraction of petroleum-contaminated sites that warrant vapor control or additional site management. This ITRC guidance complements the ongoing work of U.S. EPA Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) in addressing the PVI pathway.

Funding Available for 2015 Brownfields Assessment and Cleanup Grants

Posted: October 22, 2014

These brownfields grants may be used to address sites contaminated by petroleum and hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants (including hazardous substances co-mingled with petroleum). Opportunities for funding are as follows: Brownfields Assessment Grants (each funded up to $200,000 over three years; Assessment Coalitions are funded up to $600,000 over three years) and Brownfields Cleanup Grants (each funded up to $200,000 over three years). Please note that applicants who received an Assessment grant from EPA in Fiscal Year 2014 (FY14) are eligible to apply under this competition. If the applicant was a member of a coalition that was awarded a grant in FY14, that applicant is also eligible to apply under this assessment competition. The proposal submission deadline is December 19, 2014.

Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater Using Permeable Reactive Barriers (RESET)

Posted: October 20, 2014

The long-term performance of a pilot-scale PRB installed at the Orivesi (Finland) field site has been monitored since summer 2006. The dimensions of the granular iron PRB were designed on the basis of lab experiments to ensure the removal of chlorinated solvents (PCE, TCE, and their degradation products) released to the subsurface by a dry cleaner. The system has a funnel-and-gate configuration with an additional control well. In the Orivesi project, traditional open pit and cleat-supported excavation techniques were essentially the only available earthwork methods for barrier installation. The fracture zones in bedrock were filled with injection material to eliminate contaminated groundwater bypass below the PRB.

Petroleum Vapor Intrusion: Fundamentals of Screening, Investigation, and Management

Posted: October 20, 2014

This document presents a method of screening petroleum-contaminated sites for potential vapor intrusion (VI) and provides tools and strategies for evaluating the VI pathway at different types of petroleum sites. The screening method is based on the "vertical screening distance," which was developed using empirical data from hundreds of petroleum-contaminated sites. Using screening distance to assess petroleum-contaminated sites allows managers to focus scarce resources on sites with greater potential for petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI). The guide provides a detailed description of the differences between PVI and chlorinated VI and then describes an eight-step process for screening, investigating, and managing sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons to address the PVI pathway. View the guide as a Web-based document or open/download it as a PDF file at

Improving Effectiveness of Bioremediation at DNAPL Source Zone Sites by Applying Partitioning Electron Donors (PEDS)

Posted: November 5, 2014

Partitioning electron donors (PEDs) are water-soluble electron donors that partition directly into a target DNAPL to effect enhanced in situ bioremediation (EISB). A PED technology field demonstration was conducted at a TCE source zone at NASA Launch Complex 34 using n-butyl acetate (nBA), a colorless liquid that volatilizes to form dense vapors that have the potential to form an explosive mixture with air. Introduced to the source area using direct-push injection equipment, nBA was able to promote biodegradation and achieved sustained production of dechlorination products, even in the presence of co-contaminant 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC113). This project showed that nBA can (1) achieve high rates of biologically enhanced DNAPL dissolution; (2) be easily and effectively delivered; and (3) sustain donor supply at an effective concentration at the DNAPL:water interface to promote the growth and activity of the dechlorinating biomass. [Note: The first 112 pages of the PDF file contain the main report; the subsequent 3,747 pages of appendices contain lab forms, boring logs, and other field data.]

Remediation of a Former Dry Cleaner Using Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron

Posted: November 19, 2014

Beneath a former dry cleaner located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, PCE was observed in site soil at concentrations up to 2,700 mg/kg and in shallow groundwater at concentrations up to 41 mg/L. Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) was injected as an interim measure to treat the PCE source area. To achieve a design loading rate of 0.001 kg of iron per kg of aquifer material, ~725 kg of NanoFe™ (PARS Environmental) was injected over a 2-week period into a saprolite and partially weathered rock aquifer. The injections resulted in near elimination of PCE within one month, while cis-1,2-DCE accumulated at high concentrations (>65 mg/L) for 12 months. Mass reduction of PCE and total ethenes was estimated at 96% and 58%, respectively, compared to baseline conditions. Detections of ethene confirmed complete dechlorination of PCE. Based on hydrogen gas generation, NZVI reactivity lasted 15 months. This paper is Open Access at

Use of Large-Scale Electrokinetic and Zvi Treatment for Chlorinated Solvent Remediation at An Active Industrial Facility

Posted: November 19, 2014

The Lasagna™ system, which combines electrokinetic and ZVI technologies, uses a direct current electrical field to mobilize contaminants via electroosmosis and soil heating. The contaminants are intercepted and reduced in situ using treatment zones containing ZVI. Lasagna™ was implemented for soils contaminated with chlorinated solvents, including DNAPL, at an active industrial site in Ohio. The remediation systems were placed in tight clay soils beneath traffic areas without interruption to facility production. In the moderately contaminated soils around the actively treated source areas, a grid of ZVI-filled boreholes was installed for passive treatment of residual contamination. The active systems removed 80% of the TCE mass, while the passive ZVI borings continue to reduce the TCE. Cleanup goals have been met, and the site is now in monitoring-only mode to track contaminant attenuation. Additional information:

Phytoremediation of a Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Contaminated Shallow Aquifer in Elizabeth City, North Carolina, USA

Posted: November 19, 2014

A former bulk fuel terminal in North Carolina is a groundwater phytoremediation demonstration site where 3,250 hybrid poplars, willows, and pine trees were planted from 2006 to 2008 over ~579,000 L of residual gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. Since 2011, the groundwater altitude is lower in the area with trees than outside the planted area. Soil-gas analyses showed a 95% mass loss for TPH and a 99% mass loss for BTEX. BTEX and MTBE concentrations have declined in the groundwater. Interpolations of free-phase, fuel-product gauging data show reduced thicknesses across the site and pooling of fuel product where poplar biomass is greatest. Isolated clusters of tree mortalities have persisted in areas with high TPH and BTEX mass. Toxicity assays showed impaired water use for willows and poplars exposed to the site's fuel product, but Populus survival for all four clones was higher than on-site willows or pines, even in an uncontaminated control area. This paper is Open Access at

Treatability Study Work Plan: in Situ Soil Flushing Pilot, Nevada Environmental Response Trust Site, Henderson, Nevada. Revision 2

Posted: November 19, 2014

A groundwater extraction and treatment system (GWETS) has removed chromate since 1986 and perchlorate since 1998 from the Nevada Environmental Response Trust (NERT) site's groundwater under NDEP oversight. Collected groundwater is first treated to reduce chromate to Cr(III) through a ferrous sulfate treatment system, and then the perchlorate is addressed in a series of fluidized bed reactors that contain perchlorate-reducing bacteria. Following treatment, groundwater is discharged to the Las Vegas Wash. This Work Plan details the pilot test conceptual design, preliminary lab-scale evaluations, and preliminary field work necessary for conducting an in situ soil flushing pilot test at the NERT site. The proposed pilot testing builds upon a preliminary evaluation of soil flushing technology conducted in 2010. Prior to implementation at field scale, the testing program will evaluate the performance of alternative flushing liquids (Lake Mead water versus GWETS effluent) and the potential for the technology to stimulate in situ biodegradation of perchlorate.

Code of Good Practice: in Situ Chemical Oxidation

Posted: November 19, 2014

This code of good practice from the EU's CityChlor project provides an overview of the current theoretical knowledge of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) in Section 1. To help environmental practitioners evaluate whether ISCO might be an appropriate remediation technique for a particular site, Section 2 offers six example case studies: three case studies of ISCO with activated sulfate, with ozone, and with permanganate and hydrogen peroxide, followed by three more case studies of ISCO with hydrogen peroxide alone.