Technology Innovation News Survey
Entries for December 1-15, 2014
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4795, Solicitation N6247014R9007.
The Government intends to solicit on an unrestricted basis a cost-plus-award-fee, indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity A-E contract for environmental engineering support services for Navy CLEAN. The general scope of the requirement covers program management and technical environmental services in support of the Navy's Environmental Restoration Program, including the Installation Restoration Program, the Munitions Response Program, and similar programs at any Navy or Marine Corps site within NAVFAC Atlantic's area of responsibility nationwide and overseas. The contractor shall provide a full range of A-E environmental services for a base period of one year, with four one-year options, at a ceiling of $240M. A-E firms that meet the requirements described in detail at FBO.gov are invited to submit a completed SF-330 by 2:00 PM ET, February 9, 2015. All the information needed to complete the SF 330 is contained in the FBO notice; there is no separate RFP package. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/DON/NAVFAC/N62470CON/N6247014R9007/listing.html
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Website.
In March 2014, DOE's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory published the Biodetection Technologies for First Responders: 2014 Edition product guide for the Department of Homeland Security. The report summarizes and compares an extensive list of commercially available, hand-portable biodetection technologies to help response organizations make informed equipment procurement decisions. Over 10,000 copies of the guide were downloaded in 2014. Because first responders may not have ready access to a computer, a mobile version of the guide for cell phones and tablets has been developed to help them identify the biodetection technologies for their particular needs. The product guide—available only for Apple mobile devices—can be downloaded free from the iTunes store. The release of the mobile app is part of a larger effort at PNNL to assess hand-portable, commercial, off-the-shelf biodetection technology. Additional information: http://biodetectionresource.pnnl.gov/
ESTCP is soliciting preproposals for innovative environmental technology demonstrations that address DoD requirements in two main topic areas. Under Topic 1, Management of Contaminated Groundwater, ESTCP is interested in (1) cost-effective management tools or technologies to address chlorinated solvent source zones and persistent groundwater plumes; (2) assessment of how to combine existing or new technologies more effectively and make informed decisions on transitions from active to passive remediation; and (3) optimization, assessment, and/or long-term monitoring tools for groundwater remediation. Under Topic 2, Detection, Classification, and Remediation of Military Munitions in Underwater Environments, demonstration projects are sought for technologies to detect, classify, and remediate military munitions found in water at depths to 35 meters (e.g., ponds, lakes, rivers, estuaries, and coastal and open ocean areas). Interested parties must submit a preproposal in accordance with the instructions posted at https://serdp-estcp.org/Funding-Opportunities/ESTCP-Solicitations/Enviro
A-E services are required for an IDIQ contract to provide environmental support at federal/military and civil works projects throughout the world. The Government intends to award contracts to up to four firms, sharing $36M in total capacity. Each contract will be awarded for one 5-year period with no options, each contract not to exceed $9M over the 5-year life of the contract. Firm-fixed-price task orders will be issued against the contracts. Firms must be capable of performing work on a wide variety of sites affected by hazardous, toxic, and radiological waste in addition to other environmental sites. Selection of A-E firms will be based upon the professional qualifications necessary for the performance of the required services. This procurement is unrestricted under NAICS code 541330. Interested firms having the capabilities to perform the work described in the notice at FBO.gov must submit an SF 330 in the form of one paper copy and one electronic copy on CD by 2:00 PM ET, February 9, 2015. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/USA/COE/DACA27/W912QR-41909839/listing.html
PlumeStop™, a recently developed in situ remediation technology, provides a dispersible, fast-acting colloidal biomatrix that captures and concentrates dissolved-phase contaminants (i.e., hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, and a variety of VOCs and SVOCs) within its suspended sorbent matrix. Once the biomatrix material is emplaced, dissolved-phase contaminants are strongly adsorbed to the matrix surfaces, thus creating a favorable environment where either intrinsic or enhanced biodegradation processes can take place. PlumeStop™ can be used for containment and matrix diffusion as well as for final polishing at sites having very low concentration levels. This presentation addresses the form and function of the technology with examples that demonstrate the material's subsurface distribution, significant adsorption capacity, and post-sorption degradation. http://ipec.utulsa.edu/Conf2014/Full_Manuscripts_Presentations_Speech/He
The Corps Environment, Vol 5 No 2, p 9, 2014
In the past seven years, the USACE Huntington District completed soil remediation activities in two manufacturing areas at the former Plum Brook Ordnance Works, Sandusky, Ohio. In the third and final manufacturing area, known as TNT Area A, soil remediation is coming to a close. The two-phase cleanup in TNT Area A began in January 2012, with completion scheduled for May 2014. Phase 1 involved excavation of ~17,000 yd3 from 18 areas of concern (AOCs). Characterization of the excavated material showed that six AOCs could not be closed because the soil exceeded established risk criteria. Phase 2, which began in May 2013, expanded the six remaining AOCs to identify the extent of the contamination, identified boundaries of the clean soil, and then excavated and remediated the contaminated soil using alkaline hydrolysis (AH): the process of adding a caustic material to hazardous soil to degrade the contaminants. Upon completion of the AH process, the clean soil was returned to TNT Area A. http://www.usace.army.mil/Portals/2/docs/Environmental/Corps_Environment
Utilizing vacuum to recover LNAPLs can be as straightforward as arriving on site, installing a well header and extraction pipes into the well, and hooking up to a vacuum truck. It is easy to remove the initial volume of LNAPL from the well and the annular space surrounding the well. After that, recovery can drop dramatically due to poor transmissivity of fluids, poor transmissivity of the LNAPL, incorrect screen placement, and lack of appropriate multiphase vaccum extraction (MPVE) remedial techniques. At two sites in the southeastern United States, LNAPL remediation was ongoing with poor results. The first site comprised two adjacent service stations and utilized MPVE. The second site, a fuel oil spill at an industrial facility, employed a timed total fluids pumping system. At both sites, a better understanding of the hydrogeological properties and the optimized application of MPVE led to improved results. http://www.ecoforum.net.au/pdfs/EcoForum%20Papers/E061_Brendan%20Brodie.
ERDC Engineer Update, 20 Nov 2014
Innovative technologies were implemented in the three-phase cleanup of the former motor pool site at the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center in Vicksburg, Mississippi. The key component of the cleanup was the Vapor Energy Generator (VEG) soil remediation system. The patented VEG technology houses a completely enclosed treatment chamber within which the soil and associated contaminants are steam-heated to temperatures as high as 1,100°F as an internal auger rotates the soil. Captured by a vacuum system inside the enclosed treatment chamber, the vaporized contaminants pass through a series of patented acid gas and emission-reducing filters before being routed back to the generator to be burned as fuel to run the treatment system. The system operates completely on recycled water. Treated soil was returned to the site as backfill. Phase one of the cleanup used aggressive in situ treatment of dissolved-phase VOCs (TCE, PCE, and daughter products) present in groundwater from 20-35 ft bgs. Treatment accomplished in a one-week period involved bioaugmentation, biostimulation, and injection of a chemical reducing substrate containing ferrous iron. Phase two targeted soils from ground surface to 20 ft bgs. Of the 2,500 yd3 of soil excavated, ~800 yd3 that contained chlorinated VOCs consistent with those in the groundwater were addressed with VEG technology. The final phase of the cleanup involves routine monitoring of groundwater quality. http://www.usace.army.mil/Media/NewsArchive/StoryArticleView/tabid/232/A
ERDC Engineer Update, 15 Oct 2014
On October 7, 2014, a USACE Omaha District team won the biennial Secretary of the Army Environmental Award in Environmental Restoration-Installation for 2013 for the cleanup of a formerly used defense site located at the former Offutt Air Force Base, 30 miles northwest of Omaha, Neb. Pretreatment investigations at Atlas D Missile Site 2 exposed a substantial (indicative of DNAPL) TCE soil and groundwater contamination source. Implementation of an innovative thermal technology accelerated remediation of the DNAPL source zone. Crews implemented an in situ thermal treatment using a large-diameter auger and zero-valent iron to remediate the site. This unique and integrated system advanced an 8-ft diameter auger to depths >40 ft at multiple cells across the treatment area. Crews treated 163 cells: 57 cells with the large-diameter augers and ZVI to create a barrier around the site, and 106 cells with the large-diameter auger, steam, hot air, and ZVI. Pre- and post-treatment results indicate the technology was 99.98% effective in reducing TCE concentrations within the source area soils and 99.72% effective within the source area groundwater. Use of the innovative thermal technology benefitted bioremediation processes in groundwater at the treated DNAPL source area and in surrounding areas, facilitating a site-wide remedy. The site is on schedule for closure in 2018. http://www.usace.army.mil/Media/NewsArchive/StoryArticleView/tabid/232/A
Demonstrations / Feasibility Studies
Environmental impacts from historical smelting operations are present within and outside the site of the former ASARCO smelter (El Paso, Texas). In Parker Brothers Arroyo, the site contractor completed construction of two in situ zero-valent iron (ZVI)-based permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) in October 2012 and the performance monitoring network in June 2013. This status report presents construction details for the PRBs with subsequent performance results. The objectives of the field demonstration are to verify the effectiveness of the ZVI PRB technology for concentrations of arsenic, antimony, selenium, and thallium above regulatory requirements at this site, initiate groundwater remediation, and provide data to support the final site-wide groundwater remedy. http://www.recastingthesmelter.com/wp-content/themes/recastingasarco/dow
In 1985, the Boeing Company identified TCE constituents in groundwater at the former Boeing Wichita facility. The groundwater plume in the 500 Ramp Area, located in the northeast corner of the site, consists of a source area centered near monitoring well MW-03-01R, which historically has exhibited concentrations of chlorinated ethenes >100,000 µg/L. A biostimulation pilot program begun in December 2003 achieved a substantial decline in total VOC concentrations within the treatment area by late 2007. Monthly injection of carbon amendments was modified to periodic injections in select wells as TVOC concentrations declined. Additional remedial measures, including soil vapor extraction and limited excavation in 2010, were conducted to address the residual mass. ChitoRem® solid-phase carbon amendment was added to the base of the excavation to support microbial reductive dechlorination processes in groundwater. Suspension of the carbon amendment injections to test for rebound showed increased TVOC concentrations between 2011 and 2012, indicating persistent residual mass. The pilot test program was extended to six lactate injection events completed between July 2013 and April 2014. This report discusses the results. http://kensas.kdhe.state.ks.us/berisl/getDocument.kdhe_ber?documentId=20
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol 21 No 15, 9270-9277, 2014
In an investigation of the use of nano-metallic calcium (Ca) and calcium oxide (CaO) dispersion mixture for the simultaneous remediation of soils contaminated with both PCBs and heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, and Pb), the nano-metallic Ca/CaO dispersion mixture achieved 95-99% immobilization of heavy metals during a simple grinding process, regardless of soil moisture content. The treatment obtained PCB hydrodechlorination efficiencies up to 97%. Higher hydrodechlorination efficiency was observed by preliminary drying of soil. http://www.e3s-conferences.org/articles/e3sconf/pdf/2013/01/e3sconf_ichm
Environmental Earth Sciences, Vol 72 9, 3339-3352, 2014
This paper presents the development and characterization in lab experiments, model simulations, and a field test of a new kind of nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI). The developed NZVI particles, manufactured by milling, consist of 85% Fe(0) and exhibit a flake-like shape of <100 nm thickness. The mass-normalized PCE dechlorination rate constant was 4.1 x 103 L/g/h compared to 4.0 x 104 L/g/h for a commercially available reference product. A transport distance of at least 190 cm in quartz sand with a grain size of 0.2-0.8 mm and Fe(0) concentrations between 6 and 160 g/kg (sand) were achieved without significant clogging. The particles had no long-term inhibitory effects on dechlorinating microorganisms. Injection of 280 kg of the iron flakes in the field to a depth of 10-12 m into quaternary sand layers saw hydraulic conductivities ranging between 104 and 105 m/s. Fe(0) concentrations of 1 g/kg (sand) or more [up to 100 g/kg (sand)] were achieved in 80% of the target area. The iron flakes have so far remained reactive for more than 1 year, with a PCE concentration decrease from 20,000-30,000 µg/L to 100-200 µg/L.
Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation, Vol 34 No 2, 96-106, 2014
A major uncertainty in the process of delivering zero-valent iron (ZVI) into the subsurface involves determining the distribution of the iron during emplacement. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) is a method for mapping the distribution of ferromagnetic material such as ZVI. The method was tested in the laboratory on synthetic cores containing EHC® (an organic amendment containing 40-50% ZVI) using an MS meter with two types of sensors, loop and handheld. Both sensors have high sensitivity (e.g., 1% disseminated EHC is easily detected), while the hand-held sensor has greater spatial resolution (e.g., differences are notable on a scale of 1 cm). The handheld instrument was used to perform field measurements for multiple pilot studies as well as for a full-scale EHC application delivered variously by pneumatic fracturing, hydraulic fracturing, and direct injection to construct a biobarrier at a cleanup site.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol 21 No 6, 4697-4704, 2014
Soil contaminated with semivolatile PCBs was sampled at an interim storage point for waste PCB transformers and heated to temperatures from 300-600°C in a flow of nitrogen to investigate the effect of temperature and particle size on thermal desorption. Two size fractions were tested: coarse soil of 420-841 µm and fine soil with particles <250 µm. A PCB removal efficiency of 98.0% was attained after 1 h of thermal treatment at 600°C, whereas at low temperature, the thermally treated soil still had a PCB homologue distribution similar to that of raw soil, indicating thermal desorption as a main mechanism in removal. Fine soil particles showed higher removal efficiency and destruction efficiency than coarse particles, suggesting that desorption from coarse particles is influenced by mass transfer.
Electrochemical technologies have the potential to provide selective and measurable recovery of base metals from dilute mining influenced water (MIW, such as acid mine drainage or pit lake water), but the technology currently is not widely used in MIW treatment. This paper discusses the principles of electrochemical recovery and reviews the application of cementation and electrowinning to MIW for metal recovery. Example case studies demonstrate that copper is the most viable target for electrochemical metal recovery from MIW because of the high purity of metallic Cu formed by both cementation and electrowinning. http://www.imwa.info/docs/imwa_2014/IMWA2014_Figueroa_627.pdf
Analysis of dissolved metals in acid rock drainage with an Agilent 4100 MP AES instrument that combines a nitrogen micro-plasma with atomic emission detection was compared with an ICP-MS analysis. Sample preparation consisted only of filtration, acidification (HNO3 1%), and addition of internal standard elements after appropriate dilution. In the complex matrices, the systems gave identical results, provided that care was taken to avoid ionization (easily done by addition of CsNO3), which eliminated the need for matrix matching of calibration solutions. The use of internal standards is needed only for elements with known spectral interferences. http://www.imwa.info/docs/imwa_2014/IMWA2014_Karlsson_131.pdf
For treating acid mine drainage (AMD), addition of an appropriate coating to a low-cost adsorbent can enhance removal performance. In a study of coated and uncoated bone char, the authors adopted Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms to fit the batch experimental data. Results showed that while the maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) of manganese-coated bone char could increase 78.83 times over that of uncoated bone char, the coated layer reduced the bone char's neutralization ability. The coated bone char's final pH value of equilibrium solution was 4.66 compared to a pH value of 6.07 for uncoated bone char. http://www.imwa.info/docs/imwa_2014/IMWA2014_Liu_650.pdf
Determining the source and fate of sediments is a sediment management issue faced by the mining industry. Geochemical fingerprinting generally involves identifying a unique set of elements within the mine-derived sediment to discriminate between mine- and non-mine derived sources downstream. The actual set of elements or other sediment properties used in the fingerprinting analysis will vary according to the in situ catchment characteristics. This paper presents three examples of sediment fingerprinting studies in remote environments at mines in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, and Indonesia. Using elemental composition and a range of multivariate statistical procedures, it was possible to distinguish between the mine and remaining catchment signatures and to identify specific elements that contributed to the differences. http://www.imwa.info/docs/imwa_2014/IMWA2014_Pearson_161.pdf
The effects of temperature and treatment time on PCB removal efficiency were investigated for subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of a contaminated soil. SCWE achieved a PCB removal percentage of 99.7% after 1 h at 250°C. The mass removal efficiency of low-chlorinated species was higher than high-chlorinated congeners at lower temperatures, but the opposite was observed at higher temperatures because the lower chlorinated congeners are formed by dechlorination of higher chlorinated congeners. GCMS analysis confirmed that the PCBs underwent partial degradation, and degradation products—mono- and di-chlorinated biphenyls, oxygen-containing aromatic compounds, and small-size hydrocarbons—not initially present in the contaminated soil were identified in the effluent water.
The groundwater remediation field has been changing constantly since it first emerged in the 1970s. The remediation field has evolved from a dissolved-phase centric conceptual model to a DNAPL-dominated one, which now is being questioned due to a renewed appreciation of matrix diffusion effects on remediation. Detailed observations about contaminant transport have emerged that challenge the validity of one of the mainstays of the groundwater solute transport modeling world: the concept of mechanical dispersion. A new conceptual model of contaminant transport based on diffusion may displace the well-established position of mechanical dispersion commonly used in almost every groundwater contaminant transport model. This paper evaluates the status of existing models and modeling studies that were conducted using advection-dispersion models.
Efficiency of ultraviolet-ozone (UV/O3) and UV-hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) processes was investigated for simultaneous removal of MTBE and benzene from contaminated groundwater. The photoreactor housed 15-watt low pressure (LP) and 150-watt medium pressure (MP) mercury UV lamps. Contaminant oxidation was studied at two different levels of ozone and hydrogen peroxide in brackish groundwater samples spiked with MTBE and benzene up to a 500 µg/L concentration. Removal potential was evaluated at different parameters, such as UV type and intensity and peroxide and ozone dosages, as well as contact time. No contaminant removal was attained with hydrogen peroxide or ozone alone, but about 50% and 30% removal of MTBE was achieved in 30 minutes when irradiated with MP-UV and LP-UV lamps, respectively. The UV/H2O2 process had a superior performance in removal of MTBE (90% in 10 min) and benzene (95% in 5 min) compared to the UV/O3 process. Both approaches removed benzene more easily than MTBE. Higher UV intensities and elevated doses of H2O2 can accelerate simultaneous removal of MTBE and benzene from water. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2014/452356/
This briefing paper summarizes the objectives, study approach, and findings of the South River Pond Pilot Study, which is testing the efficacy of a sediment carbon amendment in limiting the bioavailability of mercury to biological receptors. The study pond was amended in the spring of 2011. This technical briefing presents results and findings from ongoing annual monitoring. https://s3.amazonaws.com/abi_web_files/southriverscienceteam.org/documen
Contaminated Land: Applications in Real Environments (CL:AIRE), London. ISBN: 978-1-905046-24-9, 105 pp, 2014
LNAPLs such as gasoline, diesel, and heating oils are among the most commonly encountered organic contaminants in the subsurface environment due to their ubiquitous use and accidental release. This handbook presents best-practice guidance for the assessment and remediation of LNAPLs in the subsurface. Central to the handbook and the management of risks posed is the development of conceptual models of LNAPL behavior in common hydrogeological systems. The handbook also facilitates access to detailed research, guidance, and case study literature within the various topics covered. http://www.claire.co.uk/LNAPL
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank, Washington, DC. 65 pp, 2014
Over the past 20 years, the World Bank has partnered with countries in the Latin America and Caribbean region to pioneer innovative environmental policies and initiatives, including fuel and air quality standards in Peru, carbon emission reduction in Mexico, payment for ecosystem services in Costa Rica, participatory and integrated water resources management in Brazil, and new approaches to irrigation management in Mexico. This paper was developed as a vehicle to promote dialogue with World Bank member countries on policy, legislation, and regulatory, implementation, and organizational issues relevant to contaminated sites; alternatives for the design and implementation of site contamination programs; and developing an agenda of short- and longer-term actions. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/18631
Cleanup and redevelopment of brownfields can be an effective economic development strategy, with benefits seen in two timeframes. First, an immediate and one-time capital expenditure for cleanup activities, infrastructure, and construction can generate tax revenues, temporary family-wage jobs, and indirect economic benefits within the community. Second, long-term economic impact from remediation projects can occur in the form of higher property values, long-term tax revenues, and attraction of external capital to the community by tenants of the revitalized property. The economic benefit of contaminated site redevelopment may be illustrated most clearly by permanent job creation from the restored properties. The deleterious effects of industrial contamination across all facets of a community typically provide a strong incentive for leaders to seek financing mechanisms that make site remediation possible. This paper was developed as a vehicle to promote dialogue with World Bank member countries on mechanisms to finance contaminated site remediation. It supplements a previous World Bank product, Developing a Program for Contaminated Site Management in Low and Middle Income Countries (2014). http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2014/10/20470907/financing-mec
Defra, London, UK. Report No. 1023-0, 346 pp, Dec 2013
This report summarizes the approaches taken by specific countries to identify and remediate contaminated land and how their regimes work in practice, including funding sources. The countries considered in detail are Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Republic of Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK (England, unless otherwise stated), and USA. Each country's policy and practice is summarized in the appendices. The research was cross-checked with in-country specialist contributors. The report covers the following topics:
- How specific legal regimes determine "contaminated" and "not contaminated" land.
- Estimated effectiveness of each country's means of deciding what land is contaminated.
- Estimate by country of the amount of potentially contaminated land.
- How countries decide who pays for remediation.
- The size of the contaminated land sector in each country and what drives its activity.
- How financial liability for contaminated land is attributed and success of the approach.
CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. ISBN: 9781482224474, 333 pp, 2014
In 13 independently authored chapters, this text demonstrates new developments and PRB applications in case studies from around the world. View the table of contents and abstracts at http://www.crcnetbase.com/isbn/9781482224481
CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. ISBN: 9780415620857, 208 pp, 2014
This book combines discussion of the theoretical background of arsenic remediation with commercial case studies, recent research results, and perspectives on future work. The book's seven chapters offer information on permeable reactive barriers, phytostabilization, electrokinetics, microbial in situ mitigation, in situ immobilization, and numerical modeling of arsenic mobility. View the table of contents and abstracts at http://www.crcnetbase.com/isbn/9780203120170
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