U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Technology Innovation News Survey

Entries for October 1-15, 2014

Market/Commercialization Information
FY 2016 SERDP SOLICITATIONS
Department of Defense, Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, 2014

SERDP is seeking Core environmental R&D proposals to fund beginning in FY 2016. Basic, advanced, and applied projects will be selected through a competitive multi-stage review process. All Core pre-proposals are due by January 8, 2015. For 2016, SERDP is interested in the following environmental restoration and munitions response topics:
  • Measurement and Enhancement of Abiotic Attenuation Processes in Groundwater.
  • Ecotoxicity of Perfluorinated Compounds.
  • Improved Understanding of Particle Deposition from Low-Order Detonations of High Explosive Munitions.
  • Detection, Classification, and Remediation of Military Munitions Underwater.
The SERDP exploratory development (SEED) solicitation provides funding opportunities for work that will investigate innovative environmental approaches entailing high technical risk or requiring supporting data to provide proof of concept. Funding is limited to $150,000 for projects lasting about one year. SEED proposals are due by March 10, 2015. For FY 2016, SERDP seeks proposals for the following munitions response and weapons systems program areas:
  • Modeling Predictions of Munitions Penetration in a Variety of Soils.
  • Development of Methodologies for Evaluating Emissions from Metal-Based Energetic and Pyrotechnic Formulations.
  • Environmentally Sound and Safe Military Munitions Demilitarization.
Details are available under Funding Opportunities at https://www.serdp-estcp.org/Funding-Opportunities/SERDP-Solicitations.


DOE OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY FORUM
U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4739, EM-BUSINESS_OPP_FORUM-12-11-2014

The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management Business Opportunity Forum is an outreach event. Approximately each quarter, businesses will be invited to attend a forum to hear the latest news from the Office of Environmental Management and participate in a dialogue on upcoming business opportunities. Topics will include the status of ongoing and upcoming procurement opportunities and contractor cost/pricing information. A forum event will be held December 11th, 2014, from 1-3 pm, in the large auditorium, ground floor, in the Forrestal Building, 1000 Independence Ave., SW, Washington, DC. There is no charge to attend, but pre-registration by December 5, 2014, is required. For participants from American Samoa, Arizona, Louisiana, Maine, Minnesota, New York, Oklahoma, or Washington State, a passport or other identification that comports with the REAL ID Act will be required to gain entry. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/DOE/PAM/HQ/EM-BUSINESS_OPP_FORUM-12-11-2014/listing.html


COMMUNITY-SCALE AIR TOXICS AMBIENT MONITORING
U.S. EPA, Office of Air and Radiation, RFP EPA-OAR-OAQPS-15-01, 2014

EPA announces the availability of funds and solicits proposals for projects designed to assist state, local and tribal communities in identifying and profiling air toxics sources, assessing emerging measurement methods, characterizing the degree and extent of local air toxics problems, and tracking progress of air toxics reduction activities. The total estimated available funding for this competitive opportunity is about $4M. EPA anticipates awarding 15 to 20 assistance agreements from this announcement, subject to availability of funds. The closing date for proposals is January 5, 2015. http://www.epa.gov/air/pdfs/rfp-epa-oar-oaqps-15-01.pdf


NOME TANK SITE E, ALASKA
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, USACE District, Alaska.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4736, Solicitation W911KB-15-R-0007, 2014

The general objectives of the scope of work are to remove the tank and remediate Nome Tank Site E. (1) Demolish and dispose of a large formerly underground fuel storage tank (~1,000,000-gal capacity). (2) Complete the necessary site preparations to achieve excavation depths of 50 ft or more bgs. (3) Excavate, transport, and treat and/or dispose of up to 30,000 tons of petroleum, oil, and lubricant-impacted soil. (4) Remove any free product from the open excavation. (5) Backfill the excavation and complete site restoration. (6) Install up to 20 groundwater monitoring wells. The contract's estimated range of magnitude is $5M to $10M, with a 5-year period of performance. This procurement is a competitive 8(a) set-aside, NAICS code 562910, with a small business size standard of 500 employees. Responses must be received by 2:00 PM Alaska Time, December 8, 2014. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/USA/COE/DACA85/W911KB-15-R-0007/listing.html


HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT, REMOVAL & DISPOSAL THROUGHOUT THE ENTIRE STATE OF ALASKA, INCLUDING REMOTE REGIONS
Defense Logistics Agency, Battle Creek, MI.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4736, Solicitation Alaska_TBA, 2014

This sources sought synopsis has been issued to identify qualified small business, woman-owned small business, and service-disabled veteran-owned small business concerns for a firm-fixed-price, indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity contract (NAICS code 562211) for the removal, transportation, and disposal of RCRA hazardous and state-regulated waste, PCBs, and compressed gas cylinders throughout Alaska. The scope of work includes all management, supervision, labor, engineering services, tools, materials, equipment, supplies, facilities, and transportation necessary to perform the required services. Contract duration is anticipated to be for one 18-month base period plus two 18-month options. There is no solicitation available at this time. Upon review of industry response to the sources sought, the Government will determine whether a set-aside acquisition is in the Government's best interest. Interested small business firms matching the categories referenced above may submit a brief (4 pages maximum) capabilities statement package demonstrating ability to perform the requested services. Submittals must be received by 11:59 PM ET, December 1, 2014. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/DLA/J3/DRMS/Alaska_TBA/listing.html



Cleanup News
REMEDIATION OF A FORMER DRY CLEANER USING NANOSCALE ZERO VALENT IRON
Jordan, M., N. Shetty, M.J. Zenker, and C. Brownfield.
Remediation Journal, Vol 24 No 1, 31-48, Winter 2013

Beneath a former dry cleaner located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, PCE was observed in site soil at concentrations up to 2,700 mg/kg and in shallow groundwater at concentrations up to 41 mg/L. Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) was injected as an interim measure to treat the PCE source area. To achieve a design loading rate of 0.001 kg of iron per kg of aquifer material, ~725 kg of NanoFe™ (PARS Environmental) was injected over a 2-week period into a saprolite and partially weathered rock aquifer. The injections resulted in near elimination of PCE within one month, while cis-1,2-DCE accumulated at high concentrations (>65 mg/L) for 12 months. Mass reduction of PCE and total ethenes was estimated at 96% and 58%, respectively, compared to baseline conditions. Detections of ethene confirmed complete dechlorination of PCE. Based on hydrogen gas generation, NZVI reactivity lasted 15 months. This paper is Open Access at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rem.21376/abstract.

USE OF LARGE-SCALE ELECTROKINETIC AND ZVI TREATMENT FOR CHLORINATED SOLVENT REMEDIATION AT AN ACTIVE INDUSTRIAL FACILITY
Athmer, C.J.
Remediation Journal, Vol 24 No 4, 41-51, 2014

The Lasagna™ system, which combines electrokinetic and ZVI technologies, uses a direct current electrical field to mobilize contaminants via electroosmosis and soil heating. The contaminants are intercepted and reduced in situ using treatment zones containing ZVI. Lasagna™ was implemented for soils contaminated with chlorinated solvents, including DNAPL, at an active industrial site in Ohio. The remediation systems were placed in tight clay soils beneath traffic areas without interruption to facility production. In the moderately contaminated soils around the actively treated source areas, a grid of ZVI-filled boreholes was installed for passive treatment of residual contamination. The active systems removed 80% of the TCE mass, while the passive ZVI borings continue to reduce the TCE. Cleanup goals have been met, and the site is now in monitoring-only mode to track contaminant attenuation. Additional information: http://www.terrancorp.com/sites/default/files/Application-of-EK-Remediation-Under-Active-Facility.pdf.

INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF LEGACY MANAGEMENT RIVERTON PROCESSING SITE
Looney, B., M. Denham, and C. Eddy-Dilek.
SRNL-STI-2014-00163, 79 pp, 2014

The Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site is a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989. An evaluation by an independent technical team to assess the current status of natural contaminant flushing processes to remove groundwater contamination led to the following recommendations: (1) increased emphasis on collecting data in the zones where secondary source minerals are projected to accumulate (e.g., just above the water table) using low-cost methods such as x-ray fluorescence and (2) using low-cost nontraditional sources of data to provide supplemental data (e.g., multispectral satellite imagery). The team also conditionally recommended continued natural flushing, groundwater pump-and-treat with plume-scale irrigation to help flush out vadose zone contamination, and in situ stabilization using structured geochemical zones to supplement the naturally reduced zones already present at the site. http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1130785

WYCKOFF/EAGLE HARBOR SOIL AND GROUNDWATER OPERABLE UNITS FOCUSED FEASIBILITY STUDY: REMEDIAL TECHNOLOGY SCREENING AND PRELIMINARY REMEDIAL ACTION ALTERNATIVES
U.S. EPA Region 10, 158 pp, 2014

The area and volume of NAPL-contaminated source material to be addressed in the focused feasibility study for this wood treater site was defined using information obtained from a Tar-specific Green Optical Scanning Tool (TarGOST) field investigation conducted in 2013. The TarGOST results were used to identify five remedial action target zones. This Technical Memorandum identifies the technology combinations recommended for each target zone:
  1. Core Area: In situ solidification/stabilization (ISS), excavation and thermal desorption, and thermal enhanced extraction.
  2. North Shallow (LNAPL): ISS, excavation and thermal desorption, thermal enhanced extraction, and in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO).
  3. East Shallow (LNAPL): ISS, excavation and thermal desorption, and thermal enhanced extraction.
  4. North Deep (DNAPL): ISS, ISCO, and thermal enhanced extraction.
  5. Other Periphery: ISS, ISCO, and thermal enhanced extraction.
Enhanced aerobic biodegradation is included as a polishing technology for deployment in areas with sparse NAPL occurrences and for implementation in target zones following completion of more aggressive remedial activities. http://www.epa.gov/region10/pdf/sites/wyckoff-eagleharbor/wyckoff_tm_ffs-raa_maintext_final_020614.pdf
Additional information: http://yosemite.epa.gov/R10/cleanup.nsf/7d19cd587dff1eee8825685f007d56b7/62575003bd4e619088257a7e00802c50!OpenDocument

WORKERS WILL CLEAN UP GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION SOURCE WITH DEEP SOIL MIXING
EM Update, Vol 6 No 10, 2014

Beginning in January 2015, DOE's Paducah site cleanup contractor will address groundwater contamination with steam-enhanced deep soil mixing, using an 8-ft-diameter auger to mix the soil to a depth of about 60 ft. The 2-acre cleanup zone, located in the southwestern part of the site's fenced area, was used in the 1970s as an oil landfarm, which at that time was acceptable industry practice for biodegrading waste oils. The waste oils at Paducah, however, contained TCE, which seeped into the subsurface. During soil mixing, steam will be injected through the auger, vaporizing the TCE for recovery and treatment at the surface. Subsequently, reactive iron will be injected into the treatment area to degrade any residual TCE in the soil. http://energy.gov/em/articles/workers-will-clean-groundwater-contamination-source-deep-soil-mixing

MICROBIALLY MEDIATED IN SITU DESORPTION ACCELERATES REMEDIATION OF LARGE GASOLINE PRODUCT PLUME
Fowler, T. and C. Martin.
Remediation Journal, Vol 24 No 3, 85-102, 2014

Coupling multiphase extraction with in situ microbial stimulation accelerated remediation of a large, separate-phase hydrocarbon product zone and associated dissolved-phase gasoline plume. Initially, the hydrocarbon plume extended ~7 acres, with product thickness measuring up to 2.1 ft. Within 18 months after extraction startup, reduction of gasoline constituents in groundwater became asymptotic, and measureable product disappeared from the upgradient source area. A subsequent program of limited in situ anaerobic bioremediation stimulated production of natural surfactants from native microbes, a process designed to release petroleum from the soil matrix. Groundwater concentrations of gasoline constituents increased gradually over the next 3 years, improving recovery without biofouling the pump-and-treat infrastructure. The groundwater component of the remedy was completed in <5 years, far less than the 10-15 years predicted. The strategy demonstrated a more sustainable approach to remediation, reduced electrical usage by ~800 megawatt hours, reduced infrastructure requirements, and preserved ~150 million gal of groundwater for agricultural use.

CONCEPTUAL SITE MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND PHASED REMEDY IMPLEMENTATION TO ACHIEVE VAPOR SCREENING GOALS AT A FORMER DRY CLEANER
Jordan, M. Remediation Journal, Vol 24 No 4, 107-126, 2014

PCE releases at a former dry cleaner contaminated soil and shallow groundwater beneath and adjacent to the building. Monitoring showed PCE concentrations of 900-1,200 µg/m3 in indoor air. The soil vapor migration pathways were evaluated by a helium tracer test and vapor sampling of an exterior concrete block wall, which confirmed that the wall acted as a vapor intrusion conduit. The remediation approach focused on mass reduction in the source area and mitigation of vapor migration into the building. Excavation of soil beneath the floor slab and installation of a spray-applied vapor barrier decreased PCE concentrations in indoor air by 97.9%. Operation of an active ventilation system installed under the floor slab and groundwater remediation via injections of nanoscale zero-valent iron further reduced PCE concentrations in indoor air by 99.8% over baseline conditions. Significant reductions of PCE concentrations in groundwater were noted two months after injection, but maximum reductions to PCE concentrations in indoor air took 12 months more.


Demonstrations / Feasibility Studies
PHYTOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATED SHALLOW AQUIFER IN ELIZABETH CITY, NORTH CAROLINA, USA
Nichols, E.G., R.L. Cook, J.E. Landmeyer, B. Atkinson, D.R. Malone, G. Shaw, and L. Woods.
Remediation Journal, Vol 24 No 2, 29-46, 2014

A former bulk fuel terminal in North Carolina is a groundwater phytoremediation demonstration site where 3,250 hybrid poplars, willows, and pine trees were planted from 2006 to 2008 over ~579,000 L of residual gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. Since 2011, the groundwater altitude is lower in the area with trees than outside the planted area. Soil-gas analyses showed a 95% mass loss for TPH and a 99% mass loss for BTEX. BTEX and MTBE concentrations have declined in the groundwater. Interpolations of free-phase, fuel-product gauging data show reduced thicknesses across the site and pooling of fuel product where poplar biomass is greatest. Isolated clusters of tree mortalities have persisted in areas with high TPH and BTEX mass. Toxicity assays showed impaired water use for willows and poplars exposed to the site's fuel product, but Populus survival for all four clones was higher than on-site willows or pines, even in an uncontaminated control area. This paper is Open Access at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rem.21382/abstract.


TREATABILITY STUDY WORK PLAN: IN SITU SOIL FLUSHING PILOT, NEVADA ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE TRUST SITE, HENDERSON, NEVADA. REVISION 2
Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), 190 pp, 2014

A groundwater extraction and treatment system (GWETS) has removed chromate since 1986 and perchlorate since 1998 from the Nevada Environmental Response Trust (NERT) site's groundwater under NDEP oversight. Collected groundwater is first treated to reduce chromate to Cr(III) through a ferrous sulfate treatment system, and then the perchlorate is addressed in a series of fluidized bed reactors that contain perchlorate-reducing bacteria. Following treatment, groundwater is discharged to the Las Vegas Wash. This Work Plan details the pilot test conceptual design, preliminary lab-scale evaluations, and preliminary field work necessary for conducting an in situ soil flushing pilot test at the NERT site. The proposed pilot testing builds upon a preliminary evaluation of soil flushing technology conducted in 2010. Prior to implementation at field scale, the testing program will evaluate the performance of alternative flushing liquids (Lake Mead water versus GWETS effluent) and the potential for the technology to stimulate in situ biodegradation of perchlorate. https://ndep.nv.gov/bmi/docs/nert/2014-05-09-Treat%20Stdy%20WP_Soil%20Flushing%20Pilot.pdf See other reports on this site at https://ndep.nv.gov/bmi/tronox.htm.


AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN HIGH TEMPERATURE AND SALINE GROUNDWATER
Kashir, M., J. Barker, R. McGregor, and O. Shouakar-Stash.
Remediation Journal, Vol 24 No 2, 77-90, 2014

Following microcosm experiments, a field pilot test was performed to evaluate the potential for aerobic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons and MTBE in saline, high-temperature (>30°C) groundwater. In microbial communities sampled in Canada and Saudi Arabia and incubated for 106 days, the Saudi microcosm samples achieved almost complete biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons, whereas the Canadian samples showed no significant biodegradation; however, neither one degraded MTBE. In pilot testing at a Saudi field site, dissolved oxygen was delivered to the subsurface to create a reactive zone. All the target compounds declined during the 7-month field trial, with removal percentages varying between 33% for the trimethylbenzenes to >80% for the BTEX compounds. On average, MTBE decreased 40%, while naphthalene fell by 85%. Examination of the upgradient and downgradient microbial populations suggested that the upgradient anaerobic, sulfate-reducing population transitioned to a heterotrophic, aerobic bacteria-dominant population. Results illustrate that (1) field aerobic biodegradation can exceed expectations derived from laboratory experiments, and (2) conditions of high salinity and elevated groundwater temperature will not necessarily inhibit in situ aerobic bioremediation.


PILOT PROJECT FOR THE REMOVAL OF RDX IN A TRIBUTARY OF THE AUX PINS RIVER AT CFB VALCARTIER (QUEBEC)
Cloutier, F.-D. and J. Baril.
2014 RPIC Federal Contaminated Sites National Workshop, 14-16 April, Ottawa, Ontario, 20 slides, 2014

The presence of RDX in surface water draining from an artillery firing range of Canadian Force Base Valcartier led to mitigation measures to prevent impacts on the Aux Pins River and a municipal water intake outside the garrison boundary on Lake St-Joseph. A passive treatment barrier was installed in a tributary of the Aux Pins River to capture the RDX in a filter matrix of activated carbon. The installation was completed in 12 days. To date, the permeable barrier has shown 65-75% RDX removal efficiency in the tributary. Other measures and analysis will be performed to confirm the long-term effectiveness of this approach. http://www.rpic-ibic.ca/documents/RPIC_FCS2014/Presentations/4-Cloutier_ENG-Presentation_Valcartier-Liri_final.pdf


BIOVENTING OF NO. 2 FUEL OIL: EFFECTS OF AIR FLOWRATE, TEMPERATURE, NUTRIENT AMENDMENT, AND ACCLIMATION
King, M.M., N.E. Kinner, D.P. Deming, J.A. Simonton, and L.M. Belden.
Remediation Journal, Vol 24 No 2, 47-60, 2014

A 14-month pilot-scale bioventing study, sponsored by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, was conducted by the University of New Hampshire to determine the effects of the time between the contamination event and the onset of bioventing, as well as air flowrate, temperature, and nutrient amendments. The study revealed that freshly contaminated soil is not readily amenable to bioventing. Results indicate that bioventing is best applied when contamination has occurred at least two years before the onset of treatment.



Research
BIOLOGICALLY TREATING MINING IMPACTED WATER WITHIN THE MINE VOID
Sieczkowski, M.
RE3 2014 Conference, January 27-29, 2014, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 32 slides, 2014

Due to the difficulties of physical access to areas within a mine void, treatment of acid mine drainage, or mine-influenced water (MIW), generally is limited to systems that treat the water after discharge; however, treatment of MIW prior to its release presents opportunities to limit the number of locations requiring treatment and improve water quality at discharge locations. Biochemical reactors, often used to intercept and treat MIW after it exits the mine pool, increase the alkalinity and promote the formation of less soluble or insoluble metal compounds by treating the MIW in biologically active anaerobic zones. The substrates generally used to establish these zones, however, can be difficult to inject successfully into the mine void. This presentation discusses research into the use of ChitoRem® chitin complex—a solid substrate that combines soluble organics, slowly soluble organics, and carbonates—for treating MIW within a mine pool. http://www.enviroblend.com/userdata/userfiles/file/RE3%202014/2014%20presentations/Sieczkowski_Biologically%20Treating%20Mining%20Impacted%20Water%20Within%20the%20Mine.pdf


SYNTHETIC MEDIA: A PROMISING NEW TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR 1,4-DIOXANE
Woodard, S., T. Mohr, and M.G. Nickelsen.
Remediation Journal, Vol 24 No 4, 27-40, 2014

Treating 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) is a challenge due to its very low Henry's law constant, low sorption potential, and strong ether linkages. The primary solution for dioxane remediation has been various forms of advanced oxidation processes (AOP), namely ex situ treatment with catalyzed UV oxidation or ozone-peroxidation of following groundwater extraction. Many of the available AOP systems are complex, requiring careful monitoring and maintenance to adjust for variable source water and operating conditions. Synthetic media is a relatively new dioxane treatment technology that overcomes many of the operating challenges faced by existing technologies. AMBERSORB™ 560 has recently demonstrated the effective removal of dioxane over a wide range of concentrations and operating conditions, including those created by in situ thermal remediation. Consistent and reliable treatment down to sub-0.3 µg/L levels differentiates synthetic media technology from other dioxane treatment technologies.
Additional information: http://clu-in.org/products/newsltrs/tnandt/view_new.cfm?issue=0814.cfm#2
and http://www.ebcne.org/fileadmin/pres/11-13_November/11-12-13_MASTER_Steve_Woodard.pdf.


DNAPL SOURCE DEPLETION: 1. PREDICTING RATES AND TIMEFRAMES
Carey, G.R., E.A. McBean, and S. Feenstra.
Remediation Journal, Vol 24 No 3, 21-47, 2014

An empirical analysis is used to evaluate average concentration decline rates for 13 in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) and 16 enhanced in situ bioremediation (EISB) sites. Mean apparent decline rates, based on the time required to achieve the observed source strength reduction, are calculated for the ISCO and EISB sites (half-lives of 0.39 yr and 0.29 yr, respectively). The empirical study sites are shown to have faster decline rates than for a large, complex study site where ISCO was implemented (half-life of 2.5 yr), and for a conceptual pool-dominated TCE source zone where EISB was simulated (half-life of 2.5 yr). Guidance is provided on using these findings in estimating timeframes for partial DNAPL depletion goals.


DNAPL SOURCE DEPLETION: 2. ATTAINABLE GOALS AND COST-BENEFIT ANALYSES
Carey, G.R., E.A. McBean, and S. Feenstra.
Remediation Journal, Vol 24 No 4, 79-106, 2014

An empirical study of the performance of in situ remediation at a wide range of DNAPL-contaminated sites determined source strength reduction (MdR) for in situ bioremediation (EISB), in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), and thermal treatment remedies. Median MdR, geometric mean MdR, and lower/upper 95% confidence interval for the mean were 49x, 105x, 20x/556x, respectively, for EISB; 9x, 21x, and 4x/110x for ISCO; and 19x, 31x, and 6x/150x for thermal treatment. Lower MdR values were determined for large, complex sites and for sites with DNAPL pool-dominated source zones. A feasibility analysis of partial DNAPL depletion is described for a pool-dominated source zone. If aggressive source zone treatment is to be implemented due to regulatory requirements, strategic pump-and-treat is shown to be most cost-effective.


SOIL STABILIZATION METHODS WITH POTENTIAL FOR APPLICATION AT THE NEVADA NATIONAL SECURITY SITE: A LITERATURE REVIEW
Shillito, R. and L. Fenstermaker.
DOE/NV/0000939-17, DRI Publication No. 45255, 52 pp, 2014

A literature review was conducted to survey current in situ stabilization methods used to minimize the erosion of contaminated soil by water and wind. A basic overview of the physical and chemical properties of different soils is presented to provide a basis for assessing physical and chemical mechanisms for soil stabilization. No specific recommendations are presented as no stabilization method, alone or in combination, will be appropriate in all circumstances. The large areas of surficial radionuclide-contaminated soil at the Nevada National Security Site provided the impetus for the study; however, much of the review is relevant to soil stabilization against wind and water erosion for all types of contaminated sites. http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1126219


EVALUATION OF ACTIVE CAP MATERIALS FOR METAL RETENTION IN SEDIMENTS
Knox, A., M. Paller, and K. Dixon.
Remediation Journal, Vol 24 No 3, 49-69, 2014

This study evaluated chemically active amendments used to construct active caps for remediating contaminated sediments in three experiments to assess the effects of apatite, organoclay, zeolite, and biopolymers (chitosan and xanthan) on metal mobility, retention, and speciation. The first experiment showed that the amendments individually and in mixtures (2% dry weight) reduced the concentrations of Cr, Co, Ni, and Pb in water extracts from sediment. Sequential extraction procedures conducted to evaluate the effects of the amendments on metal speciation showed that the amendments reduced the potentially mobile (and likely bioavailable) fractions of Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, and Cd. Column studies showed that active caps composed of the amendments prevented the diffusive transport of metals from contaminated sediment over six months. In addition, there was a "zone of influence" beneath the caps in which water-extractable concentrations of metals declined substantially compared with untreated sediment. The full text of the manuscript is available at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1148984.


REMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON-CONTAMINATED SITES BY DNA DIAGNOSIS-BASED BIOSLURPING TECHNOLOGY
Kim, S, R. Krajmalnik-Brown, J.O. Kim, and J. Chung.
Science of the Total Environment, Vols 497-498C, 250-259, 2014

This paper describes results from a study conducted to develop a DNA diagnostic method that facilitates identification of contaminated sites that are good candidates for bioremediation. The researchers applied an oligonucleotide microarray method to detect and monitor genes that lead to aliphatic and aromatic degradation. In application, successful bioremediation of a contaminated site selected using the genetic diagnostic method was verified by implementing bioslurping in field tests. The gene-based diagnostic technique provides a tool for evaluating bioremediation potential in soils affected by petroleum hydrocarbons.


THE EFFECT OF SOIL PROPERTIES ON METAL BIOAVAILABILITY: FIELD SCALE VALIDATION TO SUPPORT REGULATORY ACCEPTANCE. ESTCP COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT
ESTCP Project ER-200517, 67 pp, 2014

This project investigated the use of simple, readily available soil properties (i.e., clay, organic and inorganic carbon) to predict the bioavailability of As, Cd, Cr, and Pb with a reasonable level of confidence. To predict in vivo bioaccessibility (IVBA), soil property information needed from a site investigation for all contaminants studied includes, at a minimum, soil pH, clay content, organic C, inorganic C, reactive Fe and Al (amorphous iron and aluminum oxides, or FEAL), Feox and/or CBD Fe). Other properties not studied that will affect ecological endpoints include soil salinity and the presence of other toxicants. A major finding of this study is that contaminant source and likely speciation greatly affects the ability of soil property to predict metal bioavailability. Metal bioavailability was not predicted for several soils where the contaminant source was unweathered mining waste or discrete inorganic mineral forms, such as coal ash. SERDP-funded research currently in progress (i.e., project ER-1742) seeks to determine the relationship between As speciation and ability to predict As bioavailability to humans. http://www.estcp.com/content/download/29855/289512/file/C&P%20ER-200517.pdf


PYROSEQUENCING ANALYSIS YIELDS COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN PILOT-SCALE TWO-STAGE MEMBRANE BIOFILM REACTORS
Ontiveros-Valencia, A., Y. Tang, H.-P. Zhao, D. Friese, R. Overstreet, J. Smith, P. Evans, B.E. Rittmann, and R. Krajmalnik-Brown.
Environmental Science & Technology, Vol 48 No 13, 7511-7518, 2014

The microbial community structure of pilot two-stage membrane biofilm reactors (MBfRs) was designed to reduce nitrate and perchlorate in contaminated groundwater. The groundwater also contained oxygen and sulfate, which became important electron sinks that affected the nitrate and perchlorate removal rates. Using pyrosequencing, scientists elucidated how important phylotypes of each primary microbial group—i.e., denitrifying bacteria (DB), perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB), and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB)—responded to changes in electron-acceptor loading. Pyrosequencing illustrated that while DB, PRB, and SRB responded predictably to changes in acceptor loading, a decrease in total acceptor loading led to important shifts within the primary groups, the onset of other members, and greater diversity overall.



General News
IN SITU BIOGEOCHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES FOR TREATING CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER
Naval Facilities Engineering Command, 6 pp, 2014

In situ biogeochemical transformation (ISBGT) refers to the abiotic transformation of contaminants by iron minerals, which can occur naturally in the soil matrix or be formed by microbial activity. ISBGT processes contribute to the natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. ISBGT can be engineered in situ and implemented for remediation via injection of liquid amendments or installation of permeable reactive barriers. This fact sheet reviews the reaction chemistry, contaminants of concern that can be treated by ISBGT, the site conditions that promote abiotic transformation processes, key parameters for monitoring remedy performance, and the potential for combining ISGBT with other remedial technologies. http://www.navfac.navy.mil/content/dam/navfac/Specialty%20Centers/Engineering%20and%20Expeditionary%20Warfare%20Center/Environmental/Restoration/er_pdfs/i/navfac-ev-fs-insitubiogeochem-201409f.pdf


NANOREM NEWSLETTER: NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR CONTAMINATED LAND REMEDIATION
Issue 2, 16 pp, Autumn 2014

The NanoRem research project—funded through the European Union's Seventh Programme for research, technological development, and demonstration—focuses on facilitating practical, safe, economic, and exploitable nanotechnology for in situ remediation. The goal of the NanoRem project is to show that the application of nanoparticles is a practical and reliable method for the treatment of contaminated soil and groundwater. The project is exploring the use of nanoscale zero-valent iron, iron oxides, and composite nanoparticles. This effort is undertaken in parallel with developing a comprehensive understanding of the environmental risk-benefit for the use of nanoparticles, market demand, overall sustainability, and stakeholder perceptions. NanoRem has produced its second newsletter, providing an update on project activities, a profile of one of the field sites, and project challenges. http://www.nanorem.eu/Stream.aspx?p=/App_Data/docs/user62Gallery/Newsletter%20n%202_FINAL_Published.pdf


CODE OF GOOD PRACTICE: IN SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION
Ceulemans, P. and V. Labeeuw.
CityChlor, 112 pp, 2013

This code of good practice from the EU's CityChlor project provides an overview of the current theoretical knowledge of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) in Section 1. To help environmental practitioners evaluate whether ISCO might be an appropriate remediation technique for a particular site, Section 2 offers six example case studies: three case studies of ISCO with activated sulfate, with ozone, and with permanganate and hydrogen peroxide, followed by three more case studies of ISCO with hydrogen peroxide alone. http://www.citychlor.eu/sites/default/files/code_of_good_practice_isco.pdf



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