Technology Innovation News Survey
Entries for August 1-15, 2014
Among DOE's diverse areas of interest, grant applications are sought for real-time, in situ measurements of hydrobiogeochemical and microbial processes in complex subsurface environments (e.g., soil, rhizosphere, sediments, vadose zone, and groundwater). In particular, highly selective, sensitive, and rugged in situ devices are needed for low-cost field deployment in remote locations. Also of interest is development of integrated sensing systems for autonomous or unattended applications of the above measurement needs as well as applications in other areas that fall within the scope of the above description. A list of all Phase 1 areas of interest is posted at http://science.energy.gov/sbir/funding-opportunities/
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4675, Solicitation DE-SOL-0006499, 2014
U.S. DOE plans to issue a solicitation within 30 to 60 days from September 10, 2014, for services to receive, handle, and treat low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, which may also include liquid and solid TSCA-regulated waste, such as PCBs and asbestos. A dedicated webpage has been established for this procurement at https://www.emcbc.doe.gov/SEB/llwmllwtreatment
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4674, Solicitation DE-SOL-0007097, 2014
To accomplish as much as possible of the remaining Office of Environmental Management's cleanup mission at Idaho National Laboratory within available funding while meeting regulatory and legal requirements, DOE anticipates issuing DRAFT RFP DE-SOL-0007097 within 15 to 45 days from September 9, 2014, with the FINAL RFP tentatively anticipated late in the first quarter of FY2015. DOE intends to conduct a presolicitation conference, site tour and industry one-on-one sessions for this procurement. For specific details, interested parties should monitor the ICP Core Procurement website at https://www.emcbc.doe.gov/SEB/ICPCORE/
Soil, groundwater, and sediment in the St. Joe River are contaminated with creosote released from a wood treater that operated on the site from 1939 to 1960. The ROD used concentrations of PAHs in sediment as the sole factor in determining which sediments required cleanup. With this ESD, EPA approved an approach for delineating the sediment area requiring cleanup that includes sediment chemistry as a primary factor, but also considers several other lines of evidence to develop a map delineating specific areas and depths where sediment will be removed from the river. As required in the ROD, contaminated sediment will be dredged and removed from the river, dredged areas will be backfilled with clean imported material, and a temporary watertight sheet pile wall will be used to enclose the most highly contaminated sediments during cleanup. Owing to the shallow depth to groundwater, EPA is changing the depth of soil that will be excavated and treated via thermal remediation in the upland area from 20 ft to a nominal depth of 10 ft. Soils deeper than 10 ft now will be included in the area to be solidified in place. EPA also is revising the soil cleanup number for benzene from 0.002 mg/kg to 1.1 mg/kg. http://www.epa.gov/region10/pdf/sites/st_maries/ESD_st_maries_creosote_f
Following issuance in 2007 of an Explanation of Significant Differences for Operable Unit 02 at the Groveland Wells Nos. 1 & 2 Superfund site, installation and operation of an in situ thermal treatment (ISTT) and enhanced soil vapor extraction (SVE) system began in August 2010. The ISTT system applied the use of electrical resistance heating—the Electro-Thermal Dynamic Stripping Process, or ET-DSP™—in the vadose and saturated zones. Ancillary equipment necessary for ET-DSP™ implementation included a transformer to deliver power to the system, power distribution systems, water-circulation units to supply water to the electrodes, water injection and cable lines for the ET-DSP™ system, and an emergency power source for the SVE system. The ISTT system operated from August 2010 to February 2011. Steam-enhanced heating was incorporated in December 2010 to supplement the ISTT's heating capability to account for heating difficulties attributed to highly permeable geology and high resistivity areas. Although soil and groundwater confirmatory sampling results indicated a 97% reduction of TCE in the site groundwater, concentrations of TCE and cis-1,2-DCE remained above cleanup goals in two small areas below pavement. The ISTT system was shut down in February 2011. The estimated overall cost of the ISTT remedial action was $6,264,000. http://www.costperformance.org/profile.cfm?ID=442&CaseID=440
The 58-acre Norwalk tank farm (formerly Defense Fuel Support Point Norwalk, California) was constructed in the 1920s by private oil companies before it was purchased in the 1950s by the Air Force to store jet fuel. The military ended fuel operations at the site in 2001. Full-scale cleanup of contamination (total petroleum hydrocarbons, 1,2-DCA, benzene, and MTBE) resulting from fuel spills and leaks began in 1995 with the installation of systems for soil vapor extraction (SVE), free-product recovery, and groundwater pump and treat. The Defense Energy Support Center put in a biosparge system in 1999 and additional biosparge wells in 2001 and 2004. In 1999, 80 poplar trees were planted in the southwest area for phytoextraction of hydrocarbons from the groundwater. A bioventing system was installed in 2009. A system installed in 2011 to treat TBA (an MTBE breakdown product) included a fluidized bed bioreactor. When free-product recovery slowed, active recovery shifted to passive recovery using absorbent socks. Traditional technologies have accomplished considerable mass removal to date but have reached flat levels and now are significantly less effective. Alternative remedial approaches are being considered to target the deeper soil, residual free product, and contaminated groundwater. http://share.parsons.com/sites/NorwalkRab/rab_meetings/Meeting%20Present
MGP 2014: The 5th International Symposium & Exhibition on the Redevelopment of Manufactured Gas Plant Sites, 6-8 April 2014, Destin, Florida. 3 pp, 2014
Because the initial field pilot test of proprietary SEPR™ followed by patented S-ISCO achieved very high volumes of DNAPL recovery within the first two weeks of the project, the treatment area was immediately expanded, and the project progressed directly to full scale. Implementation of the two technologies removed an estimated 81% of creosote DNAPL from the 6- to 15-ft depth interval within the treatment areas. Groundwater samples collected post-treatment showed no free product. http://www.verutek.com/Portals/65857/docs/Seaboard%20Lumber%20Case%20Stu
Presentation Summaries from the 15th Railroad Environmental Conference, 5-6 November 2013.
A project team in Indianapolis, Indiana, designed, constructed, tested, and implemented a portable recovery system for DNAPL at a former wood treating facility located in Bloomington, Indiana. The enhanced DNAPL recovery system, essentially an enclosed process, significantly reduces the risk of exposure from the creosote and organic vapors to field staff and the public during recovery operations by automatically trapping VOC emissions using activated carbon. Prior to 2012, DNAPL at the site was recovered by manual bailing. Though the manual method limited the volume of water recovered during operations, it also became increasingly difficult to balance time efficiency and effective DNAPL recovery with worker health and safety. The innovative recovery system both eliminates emissions and allows for critical data to be collected during recovery operations, e.g., free-product recovery rates, migration, and thickness.
Demonstrations / Feasibility Studies
Previous industrial practices from the late 1880s to the 1980s by more than 22 companies at this former coal tar facility contaminated the site's soil and groundwater with arsenic, lead, PAHs, and VOCs. A plume of coal tar creosote exists beneath the site and several adjacent properties and extends into the Hudson River. EPA released its cleanup plan for soil and groundwater at the Quanta site in September 2011. The remedy for soil calls for in situ solidification (ISS) to contain, isolate, and immobilize site contaminants, followed by capping. In the fall of 2013, an ISS pilot or field demonstration was conducted in four areas of the site, each about 20 ft by 20 ft. The field pilot results will be used to develop the final design. Full-scale implementation is expected to begin in late 2015 and require 18 to 24 months to complete. Hydraulic containment is proposed for the groundwater in addition to a permeable reactive barrier that will remove contaminants as the groundwater flows through it to protect the Hudson River. EPA has determined that full remediation of the site's groundwater is technically impracticable. A separate investigation is being conducted to determine the cleanup plan for the off-site river sediments. See additional information at http://www.quantaremediation.com/remediation/
Symposium Leuven, 21-22 November 2013. Abstract and 30 slides, 2013
Acidic groundwater contaminated with chloroethenes has migrated one km from a metal processing site. The groundwater has a high seepage velocity. The objective of the EU-LIFE+ sponsored project BACAd project is to demonstrate that full-scale bioaugmentation can be achieved cost-effectively by optimizing propagation of injected cultures, a strategy designed to decrease the costs for production and injection of microbial cultures and improve remediation efficiency. Complete dechlorination following bioaugmentation in the presence of the electron donors Nutrolase (a residue from potato processing) and glycerol was demonstrated in lab microcosms. The column tests confirmed the dechlorination capabilities of the two cultures used in the field and demonstrated the mobility of the cultures in the site's aquifer material. Two push-pull tests with the cultures grown on Nutrolase and glycerol induced complete dechlorination in the field; however, acidic groundwater conditions slowed the process and required neutralization. Glycerol performed better as a substrate than Nutrolase, which was contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. The first small-scale pilot test with injection of glycerol and a microbial culture achieved complete dechlorination in the injection wells following bioaugmentation. Full dechlorination has not yet been achieved in the second small-scale injection test of groundwater taken from another site where PCE was biodegraded successfully. Full-scale bioaugmentation transfer of microbial populations from test areas to the reactive zone is planned.
Longer abstract: http://www.bioaugmentatie.be/upl/17/e/doc/1648_4_6_e.pdf
In a biotreatability study of PCE and daughter products, two commercially available amendments—EOS® 598 and AquaBupH®—were tested to compare their efficacy in promoting the appropriate geochemical conditions (i.e., sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions) for bioremediation. With the addition of either as electron donor, the indigenous bacteria appeared able to dechlorinate PCE and TCE only partially to cDCE, but complete dechlorination of PCE to ethene was achieved with the addition of EOS® 598 or AquaBupH® as electron donor combined with KB-1® bioaugmentation, with the use of EOS® 598 as electron donor combined with KB-1® bioaugmentation considered the more effective enhanced reductive dechlorination approach. The buffering capacity of the soil maintained a pH above 6.0 throughout. The addition of microscale zero-valent iron also promoted complete reduction of PCE. The results provide evidence that either approach could be an effective remediation option for the site. Details are given in Appendix B (PDF pages 244-261). http://www.epa.gov/region2/superfund/npl/whiteswan/pdf/white_swan_fs_07-
Science of the Total Environment, Vols 485-486, 31-40, 2014
Air sparging and vadose zone aeration (VZA) were evaluated as remedial approaches at a closed, unlined municipal solid waste landfill in Florida. The goal of aeration was to oxidize Fe and Mn to their respective immobile forms. VZA and shallow air sparging using a partially submerged well screen were employed with limited success in Phase 1; decreases in dissolved Fe were observed in three of nine monitoring wells during shallow air sparging and in two of 17 wells at VZA locations. During Phase 2, where deeper air sparging was employed, dissolved Fe levels decreased in a significantly greater number of monitoring wells surrounding injection points, but no radial pattern was observed. Additionally, in wells affected positively by air sparging, rising Mn concentrations were observed, indicating that the redox potential of the groundwater moved from an Fe-reducing to a Mn-reducing environment. The mean FeTOT concentration observed in affected monitoring wells throughout the study was 1.40 mg/L compared to a background of 15.38 mg/L, while the mean Mn concentration was 0.60 mg/L compared to a background level of 0.27 mg/L. Reference wells located beyond the influence of air sparging areas showed little variation in FeTOT and Mn, indicating the observed effects were the result of air injection activities and not a natural phenomenon. Air sparging was effective in intercepting plumes of dissolved Fe surrounding the municipal landfill but did not decrease Mn groundwater concentrations.
SERDP Project ER-1684, 94 pp, Apr 2014
This project explored cost-effective ways to utilize an in situ oxidation approach to remediate relatively dilute plumes of chlorinated solvents and contaminants in deeper or lower permeability zones relative to more conventional techniques and approaches. Different materials were tested to find a cost-effective alternative host matrix that can be used to support the slow release of potassium permanganate in reactive barriers. http://www.estcp.com/content/download/28483/280531/file/ER-1684-FR.pdf
Stabilization of arsenic and chromium with iron water treatment residues (Fe-WTR) was tested at the Collstrop site in Hillerod, Denmark. The brownfield site has been polluted with a wide range of wood treating agents, including chromated copper arsenate, during 40 years of site activities that ended in the early 1980s. The first 1 m2 field experiment was amended with 2.5% Fe-WTR and monitored for 3 consecutive years, during which porewater concentrations of arsenic decreased by two orders of magnitude in the amended soil compared to an undisturbed soil profile. A full-scale field experiment was then initiated, where soil and Fe-WTR were mixed using an excavator mounted with a rotary screening bucket. In two plots of 100 m2, soil was homogenized with the screening bucket to 1 m bgs, and one of the plots was simultaneously amended with Fe-WTR. An unexpected high water content of the Fe-WTR made the amendment only 0.6% dry weight of the soil, and subsequent analysis of Fe concentrations in the amended soil showed an uneven distribution of the amendment. Analysis of the porewater from June 2011 to July 2012 showed that As, Cr, and Cu in porewater declined more than 90% in the area that received the most Fe-WTR amendment, even at this low addition ratio. http://orbit.dtu.dk/services/downloadRegister/56405013/Sanne_Skov_Nielse
This research investigated the influence of zero-valent iron (ZVI) amendments on the solubility of trace elements (Cd, Cu, Ni, and As) in soil over extended periods of time. The experiments were conducted in batch leaching experiments covering a wide pH range (3-9) on soils amended 16 and 6 years previously with ZVI (with 1% and 2% iron grit, respectively). The first soil was additionally treated with sewage sludge and sewage sludge plus 1% iron grit. Results showed that ZVI addition did not influence Cd and Ni solubility, whereas As solubility decreased by about a factor of ten. Influence on Cu was pH dependent; solubility was significantly reduced at ambient pH (~6.5), whereas solubility at lower pH remained the same in control and ZVI-treated soils. For Cu, pH needs to be kept at about 7 as binding strength of Cu by ferric (hydr)oxides decreases with decreasing pH. http://stud.epsilon.slu.se/6509/1/marsz_a_m_140317.pdf
Environmental Pollution, Vol 172, 9-22, 2013
Oxides and their precursors have been extensively studied, either singly or in combination with other amendments promoting sorption, for in situ stabilization of metals and arsenic in contaminated soils. This remediation option aims to reduce the available fraction of metal(loid)s, notably in the root zone, thus lowering the risks associated with their leaching, ecotoxicity, plant uptake, and human exposure. This review summarizes literature data on mechanisms involved in the immobilization process and presents results from lab and field experiments, including subsequent influence on higher plants and aided phytostabilization.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol 80 No 10, 3209-3218, 2014
A study of bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase gene targets in Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 for use as biomarkers to identify the potential for 1,4-dioxane biodegradation suggest that the presence of genes associated with dioxane monooxygenase, propane monooxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase are promising indicators of 1,4-dioxane biotransformation. Gene abundance, however, was insufficient to predict actual biodegradation. Expression of the propane monooxygenase demonstrated a time-dependent relationship with 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in P. dioxanivorans CB1190, with increased expression occurring after removal of >50% of the 1,4-dioxane. While the fraction of P. dioxanivorans CB1190-like bacteria among the total bacterial population significantly increased with decrease in 1,4-dioxane concentrations in wastewater treatment samples undergoing active biodegradation, the abundance and expression of monooxygenase-based biomarkers were better predictors of 1,4-dioxane degradation than taxonomic 16S rRNA genes. This study illustrates that specific bacterial monooxygenase and dehydrogenase gene targets together can serve as effective biomarkers for 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in the environment.
Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA, 47 pp, 2014
In a study of the degradation of 1,4-dioxane in water using UV photolysis and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation at doses ranging from 1:1 to 1:15 (1,4-dioxane: H2O2 molar ratio), each dose of H2O2 degraded the 1,4-dioxane effectively, at optimum achieving 90% removal with a 15-minute exposure time and a molar ratio of 1:5. https://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-042814-162924/unr
International Journal of Science and Nature, Vol 4 No 1, 1-15, 2013
Phytoremediation is a slow process, and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can contribute to plant-based environmental cleanup. This review discusses the potential of AM fungi to enhance phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals. http://scienceandnature.org/IJSN_Vol4(1)M2013/IJSN-VOL4(1)13-1R.pdf
Geo-Congress 2014: Technical Papers. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, ISBN (print): 978-0-7844-1327-2, 1703-1712, 2014
This study presents a series of experiments conducted to investigate the synergistic effects of organic and heavy metal contamination on phytoremediation in a silty clay (typical field soil) containing (1) naphthalene and phenanthrene (representative organic contaminants), (2) lead, cadmium, and chromium (representative heavy metals), or (3) a combination of the organic and metal contaminants. Different plant species— Avena sativa (oat plant), Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass), Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue), and Helianthus annuus (sunflower)—were grown in the contaminated soils as well as in an uncontaminated control soil. Results showed that plants in the soil with organic contamination alone had growth characteristics similar to those in uncontaminated soil, whereas the plants in the metal-contaminated soil showed maximum distress. The plants in mixed contaminated soil performed better than plants in soils with metal contaminants alone. http://www.uic.edu/classes/cemm/cemmlab/Reshma-GeoCongress2014.pdf
New York State Department of Transportation, UTRC-RF Project 55505-02-02, 574 pp, 2013
Field-portable X-ray fluorescence was applied to quantify RCRA metals (As, Ba, Cr, Cd, Pb, Hg, Se, and Ag) along with Fe and Zn in paint waste samples, while a Hach DR 2800 field-portable spectrophotometer was employed for measuring dissolved and total Pb concentrations in bridge wash water. Given an understanding of mechanistic processes along with a demonstrated analysis of variables through principle component analysis, statistically based models for leaching from paint waste were developed. The statistical models demonstrated 96% of the data fall within the 95% confidence level for Pb, Ba, and Zn, although the regression model was not significant for Cr leaching. The models have applicability over a wide range of total metal concentrations. http://www.utrc2.org/sites/default/files/pubs/Final-Lead-Content.pdf
Results from a modeling study of reactive transport of petroleum hydrocarbons (benzene) and redox species, including Fe and Mn, highlight the importance of the combination of contamination source characteristics, geochemical factors, and hydrogeologic conditions on Fe and Mn fate and transport. A comparison of the plume lengths at 10 years of simulation time shows that the dissolved Fe and Mn plumes extend farther from the source than a benzene plume, with plume length ratios ranging from 1.4 to 3.8 for the scenarios considered. Once the petroleum hydrocarbon source zone is depleted, the dissolved benzene is rapidly attenuated (within six months), but the elevated Fe and Mn in groundwater persist at similar concentrations to pre-depletion conditions for over five years, which suggests that Fe and Mn plumes might be more extensive than petroleum hydrocarbon plumes and that elevated concentrations might persist for an extended period of time after hydrocarbon sources are removed. http://csapsociety.bc.ca/wp/wp-content/uploads/Golder-CSAP-Modeling-Iron
Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol 4, 8-19, 2013
Results of a study of the release of iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes from four contaminated soils taken from a former MGP in Cottbus, Germany, indicated that long-term CN release is governed by two phases: one readily dissolved and one strongly fixed, with varying CN release rates according to the phase and soil. According to isotherm and kinetic models, the long-term Fe-CN release from the MGP soils is a complex phenomenon driven by mechanisms involving desorption, diffusion, and transport processes in parallel. Rapid release presumably is constrained mainly by the transport process of readily dissolved Fe-CN complexes combined with desorption of CN bound to reactive heterogeneous surfaces that are in direct contact with the aqueous phase (outer-sphere complexation). Limited rate release is presumably driven by the diffusion-controlled processes involving dissolution of precipitated ferric ferrocyanide from the mineral or inner-sphere complexation of ferricyanides. CN release rates were mainly influenced by the pH, organic matter (OM), and total CN content. The cyanide release rates increased with increasing pH, decreased with low initial CN concentration, and were retarded by the increase in OM content. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?paperID=40255
For additional information, see M. Sut's 2014 Ph.D. dissertation: Volume 4 at http://www.tu-cottbus.de/fakultaet4/en/geopedologie-landscape-developmen
The University of Arizona Superfund Research Program has developed a transferable training module series that currently features arsenic, environmental toxicology, and pesticides. The educational modules were developed for use by community health workers. The flexible nature of the modules allows them to be adapted for any audience. Individual sections are available to read on line or to download in PDF files. Each theme (Arsenic, Environmental Toxicology, and Pesticides) also contains a PowerPoint presentation that can be downloaded and modified as needed. All contents are available in English and Spanish. http://superfund.pharmacy.arizona.edu/content/transferable-training-modu
U.S. EPA Region 4, 78 pp, 2013
This issue paper provides Region 4 project managers, on-scene coordinators, and technical staff with a recommended approach for evaluating and characterizing PCBs in groundwater, surface water, soil, and sediment to support defensible and protective remedy selection at PCB-contaminated sites. Characterization of groundwater, soil, and sediment for PCBs is unique because of the varied site conceptual models for PCB and PCB mixture migration and the specific analytical requirements to evaluate the presence and extent of PCB contamination. A high percentage of cases at sites where PCB groundwater contamination is present found the contamination to result from facilitated transport associated with solvents, colloids, or emulsions. The facilitated transport mechanism calls for consideration of issues such as sampling techniques, turbidity, and the presence of elevated carbon. Determining site cleanup strategies and risk is influenced by the processes, material types, and site hydrogeologic settings present at the site. This document helps the site project manager begin the process of planning the site characterization using appropriate analytical procedures on adequate samples, with the endpoint being that defensible data are available to support sound decision-making at complicated PCB-contaminated sites. http://www.epa.gov/region4/superfund/images/allprogrammedia/pdfs/riskass
OSWER Directive 9283.1-44, 18 pp, 2014
The purpose of this document is to recommend well-specific factors for EPA Regions and other stakeholders to consider in evaluating the groundwater in each monitoring well for purposes of the recommendations discussed in the groundwater restoration completion guidance (OSWER 9355.0-129, 2013). This directive accompanies OSWER 9283.1-46, an Excel spreadsheet and user's guide that comprise the Groundwater Statistics Tool, which is designed to help evaluate contaminant of concern concentrations on a well-by-well basis to determine whether a groundwater restoration remedial action is complete. These resources are posted at http://www.epa.gov/superfund/health/conmedia/gwdocs/remedial.htm
EPA 540-R-012-015, Directive 9230.1-48, 60 pp, 2014
This toolkit presents a collection of 22 fact sheets to help the general public understand more about the risk assessment process EPA uses at radioactively contaminated Superfund sites. It also provides brief overviews of EPA's risk assessment calculators and information regarding radionuclides commonly found at Superfund sites. The toolkit can be supplemented by a 19-minute video, "Superfund Radiation Risk Assessment and How You Can Help: An Overview." View the toolkit at http://www.epa.gov/superfund/health/contaminants/radiation/radtoolkit.ht
This study considered the extent of the abandoned gas station problem in New Jersey, the most urban and densely populated state. The study encompassed the development of historical gas station inventories in three New Jersey cities (location, environmental status, reuse, ownership, taxes, and demographics) and a review of the environmental reports for three specific gas station sites to obtain contamination extent and cleanup costs. Interviews with officials engaged in the remediation and redevelopment of the sites were conducted to catalog the best practices and current understanding of the extent of the problem. The city-wide case studies make it clear that only a fraction of former gas station sites are known to environmental officials. The data indicate that most former gas stations closed prior to the 1986 reporting deadline and that most of them lack environmental records. Economically disadvantaged communities host the majority of former gas station sites with no environmental records. Further, their current use is typically still auto-dependent or as vacant property. Site contamination extent and remediation costs varied widely. This study shows that many former gas stations remain a threat to the environment and human health. https://rucore.libraries.rutgers.edu/rutgers-lib/40742/
EPA 560-R-13-001, 144 pp, 2013
This report explores the evolving landscape of state environmental, financial, and technical programs designed to promote brownfields cleanup and reuse, including the incentives designed to promote brownfields cleanup and redevelopment. This text provides a concise, user-friendly synopsis of the programs and tools that are available through state programs and showcases brownfields cleanup successes. http://www.epa.gov/brownfields/state_tribal/2013_brownfields_state_repor
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