U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Technology Innovation News Survey

Entries for July 16-31, 2014

Market/Commercialization Information
FY2015 BROWNFIELDS AREA-WIDE PLANNING GRANT
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-OSWER-OBLR-14-06, 2014

EPA is soliciting proposals from eligible entities to conduct research, technical assistance, and/or training activities that will enable the entity to develop an area-wide plan for brownfields assessment, cleanup, and subsequent reuse. Brownfields area-wide planning (BF AWP) grant-funded activities must be directed to one or more brownfield sites located in a specific area, such as a neighborhood, district (e.g., downtown, arts, or shopping area), local commercial corridor, community waterfront, or city block. Each project funded under this grant must result in an area-wide plan that includes specific plan implementation strategies for assessing, cleaning up, and reusing the brownfield site as well as related brownfield and project area revitalization strategies. The closing date for applications is September 22, 2014. Estimated Total Program Funding: $4M. Award Ceiling: $200,000. http://www.epa.gov/oswer/docs/grants/epa-oswer-oblr-14-06.pdf


HAZARDOUS MATERIALS WORKER HEALTH AND SAFETY TRAINING (U45)
Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, RFA-ES-14-008, 2014

The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences invites applications for cooperative agreements to support the development of model programs for the training and education of workers engaged in activities related to hazardous materials/waste generation, removal, containment, transportation, and emergency response. The major objective of this funding opportunity is to prevent work-related harm by assisting in worker training for responses at sites such as those involved with chemical waste cleanup, remedial action, and transportation-related chemical emergency response. A major goal of the Worker Training Program is to provide assistance to organizations in developing their institutional competency to provide appropriate model training and education programs. The closing date for applications is November 6, 2014. Award Ceiling: $700,000. Estimated Total Program Funding: $28M. http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-ES-14-008.html


ALASKA ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT, REMEDIATION, AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE SERVICES
Defense Logistics Agency, Fort Belvoir, VA.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4652, Solicitation SP0600-14-R-5431, 2014

Small businesses able to perform environmental assessment, remediation, and emergency response services are needed for three Defense Logistics Agency Energy (DLA Energy) Defense Fuel Supply Point locations in Alaska: Indian, Eielson, and Whittier. This sources sought notice is issued solely for market research as these requirements are being considered for the small business set-aside program under NAICS code 541620, size standard of $15M. The solicitation for the locations will be issued via one solicitation, and award of one firm-fixed-price, performance-based individual five-year contract for each location is anticipated. The period of performance for all locations will begin on or about March 1, 2015. Responses to the sources sought must be received electronically by 3:00 PM ET, September 17, 2014. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/DLA/J3/DESC/SP0600-14-R-5431/listing.html


UNRESTRICTED PRE-PLACED REMEDIAL ACTION CONTRACT (PRAC), INDEFINITE DELIVERY/INDEFINITE QUANTITY (ID/IQ), MULTIPLE AWARD TASK ORDER CONTRACT (MATOC)
Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, USACE District, Kansas City, MO.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4659, Solicitation W912DQ-14-R-3004, 2014

The PRAC contractors will support work assigned to the USACE Northwestern Division and U.S. EPA Region 2 for hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste remediation projects. The contract will include service and construction activities mandated by the Defense Environmental Restoration Program, Superfund, Brownfields, the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the Base Realignment and Closure Program (for its Army and Air Force customers) as well as projects for the Department of Homeland Security and FEMA. The solicitation, which will be issued on or after September 19, 2014, will facilitate award of up to 10 contracts with a maximum shared capacity of $185M. Contracts will have a base period of three years and an option to extend the contract for an additional two-year period. Firm-fixed-price or cost reimbursement task orders will be written against IDIQ contracts. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/USA/COE/DACA41/W912DQ-14-R-3004/listing.html


USACE MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNMENT ACQUISITION (MEGA): ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING SERVICES IDIQ MATOC, IN SUPPORT OF USACE NORTHWESTERN DIVISION AND EXISTING CUSTOMERS NATIONWIDE
Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, USACE District, Omaha, NE.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4662, Solicitation W9128F-14-R-0033, 2014

The USACE Omaha District intends to issue an RFP for Environmental Consulting Services on or about September 11, 2014, for a 100% 8(a) set-aside, firm-fixed-price IDIQ contract. Proposals will be due around October 14, 2014. This solicitation will facilitate a target award of three or more contracts, with a maximum shared capacity of $60M. Contracts will have a base period of three years and an option to extend for an additional two-year period. The contracts awarded will encompass a wide range of environmental consulting services, including hazardous waste management; spill prevention and response plans; environmental assessments; Subtitle C and Subtitle D (40 CFR 264/265 and 40 CFR 258) landfill operations plans; and environmental fate studies. The solicitation will be available by Internet access only. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/USA/COE/DACA45/W9128F-14-R-0033/listing.html



Cleanup News
RODGER'S LABORATORY PHYTOREMEDIATION INTERIM ACTION REPORT
EPA Section 128(a) Grant Cooperative Agreement: RP-96520007 — September 1, 2012 - October 31, 2013 Report, s.128(a) Grant Accomplishments. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR), PUB-RR-955, p 25-33, 2014

The City of Milwaukee, the Wisconsin DNR, and U.S. EPA have been working to clean up the former Rodger's Lab site, a solvent reclamation and chemical manufacturer closed since the early 1980s. In 1983, EPA declared the property a hazardous materials emergency cleanup site and removed ~800 55-gal drums. The DNR recently awarded funding to the Redevelopment Authority of the City of Milwaukee to complete investigations of off-site migration. In conjunction with the award, the DNR used $20,000 of its FY12-13 section 128(a) funding in August 2013 to install a phytoremediation system of 16 hybrid sterile London Plane trees as an interim action to combat migrating groundwater contamination. The planting process provided an opportunity to replace contaminated soil with amended backfill. TreeWell® Root Sleeve systems, which force the trees to rely on groundwater as opposed to water from shallow surface penetration, were utilized in four of the plantings where investigative results identified chlorinated hydrocarbons in the groundwater. http://dnr.wi.gov/files/PDF/pubs/rr/RR955.pdf

INVESTIGATIVE AREA IA-12: FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RESPONSE ACTION FOR GROUNDWATER
Hoffmann-La Roche Nutley website, 34 pp, May 2014

A feasibility study was conducted at the Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc. site, Nutley, New Jersey, to evaluate an interim remedial measure to address PCE and its daughter products that serve as a continuing source of groundwater contamination in shallow bedrock within Investigative Area 12 (IA-12). The proposed interim measure to clean up groundwater in IA-12 consists of in situ thermal treatment for DNAPL in bedrock in Operable Treatment Unit 1 (OTU-1), with in-well air stripping and in situ chemical oxidation for dissolved-phase concentrations in OTU-2. These techniques are effective for treating PCE and its degradation compounds, and can be applied readily at the Roche site under existing state permit programs. The equipment necessary for the cleanup can be housed in a few low-profile, trailer-sized units, with minimal construction or truck traffic. http://www.rocheusa.com/home/public-documents-and-reports/feasibility-studies.html

FIVE-YEAR REVIEW REPORT FOR TIBBETTS ROAD SUPERFUND SITE, STRAFFORD COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE
U.S. EPA Region 1, 79 pp, 2013

The 1992 ROD selected vacuum extraction in the overburden aquifer and groundwater extraction and treatment in the bedrock aquifer to address site groundwater contamination (e.g., BTEX, 1,1,1-TCA, naphthalene, arsenic, manganese). A vacuum-enhanced recovery (VER) system extracted and treated both soil vapor and groundwater from the overburden aquifer from 1995 through 1997, removing ~800 lbs of contaminants during its lifetime. VER treatment also was applied selectively to contamination hot spots along with phytoremediation (1,600 poplar trees planted in 1998). An in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) pilot injection program using sodium permanganate began in November 2003, with an additional 55-gal injection completed in December 2003, followed by a second phase of ISCO pilot injections in June and November 2006. EPA has approved a work plan for an additional pilot study to assess the effectiveness of directed groundwater re-injection of activated sodium persulfate for in situ treatment of the VOCs and benzene in the bedrock, which also will co-precipitate arsenic and iron in an insoluble sulfide complex. Http://www.epa.gov/region01/superfund/sites/tibbetts/536328.pdf
More information: http://yosemite.epa.gov/r1/npl_pad.nsf/f52fa5c31fa8f5c885256adc0050b631/C875C2D48055E87A8525691F0063F6FE?OpenDocument.

URANIUM CONTAMINATION: OVERALL SCOPE, TIME FRAME, AND COST INFORMATION IS NEEDED FOR CONTAMINATION CLEANUP ON THE NAVAJO RESERVATION
U.S. General Accountability Office, GAO-14-323, 116 pp, May 2014

Four million tons of uranium ore were extracted from mines on the Navajo reservation primarily for developing the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile. The Navajo people have lived with the environmental and health effects of uranium mining contamination for over 30 years. In 2008, five federal agencies adopted a 5-year plan that identified targets for addressing the contaminated abandoned mines, structures, water sources, former processing sites, and other hazards. Federal agencies also provide funding to Navajo Nation agencies to assist with the cleanup work. This report examines (1) the extent to which the agencies achieved the targets set in the 5-year plan and reasons why or why not; (2) what is known about the future scope of work, time frames, and costs; and (3) key challenges in completing this work and opportunities to overcome them. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-323

REPORT OF RESULTS: CASE NUMBER 2010-0550-BA, COLONIAL PIPELINE COMPANY, MONKTON, MD
Maryland Department of Environment, Oil Control Program (MDE-OCP), 38 pp, 2013

The site is located along the right-of-way of Colonial's main liquid petroleum transmission pipeline. Following a pipeline release of distillate and gasoline in 1970, Colonial initiated cleanup efforts (1970 and 1990s) to investigate and remediate the area as follows: (1) product containment and recovery during the initial release; (2) excavation of 143 tons of affected soil near the unnamed tributary; (3) installation of two bio-enhanced injection points immediately adjacent to the former release area for periodic application of reagents (Regenesis®) to promote biodegradation of residual petroleum; and (4) construction of in situ "bio-cells" along the bank of the tributary to establish a treatment barrier for dissolved-phase petroleum constituents between the release area and the stream. The bio-cells are composed of soil mixed with mulch and supplemented with oxidation reagents. To address fuel-related exceedances later identified in the source area groundwater, a two-pronged remedial approach is proposed: in situ chemical oxidation (alkaline-activated sodium persulfate) for the residual source area and enhanced aerobic bioremediation downgradient through construction of a treatment barrier containing an oxygen releasing compound. http://www.mde.state.md.us/programs/Land/OilControl/RemediationSites/Documents/BA%20Co%20-%20Colonial%20Pipeline%20Report%20of%20Results%203.1.13%2038%20pgs.pdf


Demonstrations / Feasibility Studies
WINFIELD BP (A.K.A. WINFIELD AMOCO), MDE CASE NO. 2006-0466CL
Maryland Department of Environment, Oil Control Program Remediation website, 2014

In July 2012, a Geotech Plume Eater™ pilot test was implemented in a single former potable well at the Winfield BP, 1631 West Liberty Road, Sykesville, Maryland. Plume Eater incorporates five technologies: air stripping, air sparging, soil flushing, direct in situ oxidation, and bioremediation. As contaminated groundwater is drawn into the monitoring well through the Plume Eater, the device introduces oxygen that strips away the VOCs while oxygenating the treated water before it is reintroduced (through a diffuser) deeper into the aquifer. The process creates a convection flow whereby groundwater is pulled toward the monitoring well. The oxygen supplied to the saturated and vadose zones promotes and enhances natural aerobic degradation processes. The device also discharges extracted vapors into the vadose zone for intrinsic biodegradation or removal by soil vapor extraction (as was incorporated into the pilot design). Performance data through quarterly monitoring in 2014 indicate decreasing MTBE trends. The Winfield BP reports are posted in the Carroll County section at http://www.mde.state.md.us/programs/land/oilcontrol/remediationsites/Pages/Programs/LandPrograms/Oil_Control/RemediationSites/index.aspx.


PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF BIOSURFACTANT-ENHANCED IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF A CONTAMINATED SITE IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR
Zhang, B., Z. Zhu, L. Jing, Q. Cai, and Z. Li. The Harris Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. 143 pp, 2013

The target contaminated site lies within the lower tank farm at 5 Wing Goose Bay. Within a custom-manufactured pilot-scale stainless steel vessel (3.6 m L by 1.2 m W by 1.4 m D) designed for the study, a four-stage biosurfactant-enhanced bioremediation test was conducted with BTEX and lead as the target contaminants. A biosurfactant solution was applied to the pilot-scale system as (1) a washing agent through injection/extraction to improve removal of the contaminants, and (2) an additive in the mixing tank to enhance subsurface media conditions and microbial activities. http://research.library.mun.ca/6242/



Research
SOIL FLUSHING: A REVIEW OF THE ORIGIN OF EFFICIENCY VARIABILITY
Atteia, O., E. Del Campo Estrada, and H. Bertin.
Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, Vol 12 No 4, 379-389, 2013

Soil flushing using aqueous solutions is employed to solubilize contaminants. As water solubility is the controlling mechanism of dissolution, additives (e.g., surfactants, cosolvents) are used to enhance efficiencies and reduce the treatment time over the use of water alone. Although surfactant alone gives efficiencies of 80-85% in lab experiments, the amount of product required for successful field application may not be economically sustainable. The literature indicates that soil flushing efficiency can vary from 0% to almost 100% in the field, which illuminates the importance of knowledge concerning the site characteristics and contaminant location, amount, and behavior as well as other factors. The importance of the initial saturation of the NAPL is highlighted: the higher the initial saturation, the higher the efficiency. For initial saturations lower than 1%, soil flushing may be an inefficient technique. This paper provides an overview of recent lab, pilot, and field studies of soil and groundwater remediation, with a focus on chlorinated solvents. http://www.academia.edu/6256495/Soil_flushing_a_review_of_the_origin_of_efficiency_variability


A NUMERICAL MODEL OF THE SOIL FLUSHING REMEDIATION IN HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED SOIL
Antonucci, A., P. Viotti, A. Luciano, and G. Mancini.
Chemical Engineering Transactions, Vol 32, 469-474, 2013

This paper presents a 1D numerical model developed to simulate the EDTA chelation process of metal (Pb) when applied to soil flushing remediation activities. The model considers the nonstationary conditions typical of unsaturated soil. Flow and transport equations are solved simultaneously. Pb mobilization is evaluated with consideration of both the chemical aspects of chelating agents and the characteristics of the different soil fractions to which the metal can be bound. A system of first-order reactions is implemented, and both slow and fast mobilization kinetics are considered for each fraction. The model was calibrated and validated using experimental data. Results confirm that the model can serve as a tool for assessing the feasibility of a soil flushing application for heavy metal-contaminated soil, especially in the surface layer. It can be used to optimize the operating parameters (chelating dosage, application mode, and treatment thickness) to achieve the maximum treatment efficiency while minimizing potential environmental impacts. http://www.aidic.it/cet/13/32/079.pdf


ON-SITE VAPOR-PHASE ANALYSIS AS A NOVEL APPROACH FOR MONITORING GROUNDWATER WELLS
Adamson, D.T., T.E. McHugh, M.W. Rysz, R. Landazuri, M.A. Seyedabbasi, P.E. Haas, and C.J. Newell.
Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation, Vol 34 No 2, 42-59, 2014

The results of comprehensive field testing of on-site vapor-phase-based groundwater monitoring methods are presented to demonstrate their utility as a robust and cost-effective approach for rapidly obtaining VOCs concentration data from a monitoring well. These methods, which rely on sensitive, commercially available field equipment to analyze vapor in equilibrium with groundwater, proved easy to implement and can be tailored to site-specific needs, including multilevel sampling. A year-long, multi-event evaluation demonstrated that vapor-phase-based monitoring methods are no more variable than conventional groundwater monitoring methods, with both types subject to similar spatial and temporal variability, which can be difficult to reduce. Other information: This paper discusses work conducted under SERDP project ER-1601, New Cost-Effective Method for Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Programs: http://www.serdp-estcp.org/Program-Areas/Environmental-Restoration/Contaminated-Groundwater/Monitoring/ER-1601.


FLUX-BASED CRITERIA FOR MANAGEMENT OF GROUNDWATER
CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, Australia: CRC CARE Technical Report 31, ISBN: 978-1-921431-43-2, 71 pp, 2014

This report reviews guidance, documents, tools, and industry practice relating to the application of mass flux-based criteria for the management of groundwater contamination. It attempts to define where further work should be carried out to realize the advantages of mass flux-based assessment of groundwater contamination and to identify the most reliable and promising methods for further research and application. Although the focus of this report is on Australian regulations and practice, its findings and recommendations can be expected to have general applicability. The focus here is on mass flux and mass discharge associated with groundwater contamination in the dissolved phase; only brief consideration is given to the use of mass flux relative to free-phase transport. http://www.crccare.com/publications/technical-reports


PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID
Zhang, P. and Z. Li.
Nanotechnology for Water Treatment and Purification: Lecture Notes in Nanoscale Science and Technology, Vol 22, 79-110, 2014

Although heterogeneous photocatalysis based on TiO2, an effective method for the treatment of most waters contaminated with organic compounds, is ineffective in degrading PFOA, other semiconductor materials possess higher PFOA degradation activities, such as gallium oxide (beta-Ga2O3) and indium oxide (In2O3). This paper provides an overview of recent advances in the photocatalytic degradation of PFOA: (1) the mechanism for photocatalytic degradation of PFOA by In2O3, (2) the photocatalytic performance of different In2O3 nanostructures, (3) photocatalytic degradation of PFOA by beta-Ga2O3 nanomaterials, (4) and their potential applications in wastewater treatment. See additional information on the application of beta-Ga2O3 to PFOA in another paper at http://www.jesc.ac.cn/jesc_en/ch/reader/create_pdf.aspx?file_no=2012240427&flag=1&journal_id=jesc_cn.


DESIGN OF PERMEABLE ADSORBING BARRIERS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION: OPTIMIZATION OF THE INTERVENTION
Bortone, I., A. Erto, A. Di Nardo, M. Di Natale, G. Santonastaso, and D. Musmarra.
Chemical Engineering Transactions, Vol 36, 547-552, 2014

A permeable adsorbing barrier (PAB, a type of permeable reactive barrier, or PRB) of activated carbon was designed for remediation of a previously characterized PCE-contaminated aquifer. An iterative procedure using CFD (computational fluid dynamics) was employed to design and optimize barrier parameters (location, orientation, and dimensions). The CFD process allowed the description of direction flow, aquifer dynamics, and adsorption phenomena occurring inside the barrier. A specific analysis of the dynamics of the aquifer and the extent of site intervention was carried out to minimize the total barrier volume and thus optimize costs. Three different barrier configurations were considered: constant thickness (continuous barrier, PAB-C); (2) sections of different thickness tuned on pollutant inlet concentration (semi-continuous barrier, PAB-SC); and an array of deep wells (discontinuous barrier, PAB-D). Numerical results showed that all the barrier configurations were suitable to remediate the site's groundwater, with the PAB-C the least cost-effective; however, preliminary cost analysis was insufficiently detailed to establish which remediation method would be the most cost-effective. http://www.aidic.it/cet/14/36/092.pdf


REMEDIATION OF OIL CONTAMINATED SOILS: A REVIEW
Diphare, M. and E. Muzenda.
ICCIWEE'2014: International Conference on Chemical, Integrated Waste Management & Environmental Engineering, 15-16 April 2014, Johannesburg, 180-185, 2014

Remediation of oil-contaminated soil depends on factors such as amount of oil spill, oil penetration depth into the soil, soil type, and age and level of contamination. This study reviews soil remediation methods such as extraction with organic solvents, extraction with aqueous solutions, subcritical fluid extraction, and bioremediation. http://psrcentre.org/images/extraimages/414042.pdf


DEVELOPING AND FIELD-TESTING GENETIC CATABOLIC PROBES FOR MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION OF 1,4-DIOXANE WITH A ONE-YEAR TIMEFRAME
Alvarez, P., M. Li, and J. Mathieu.
SERDP Project ER-2301, 76 pp, Apr 2014

During a one-year project, catabolic biomarkers of high selectivity and sensitivity were developed to target 1,4-dioxane/tetrahydrofuran soluble di-iron monooxygenase genes using Taqman chemistry. Further, dioxane degradation activity observed in microcosms prepared with groundwater samples and aquifer materials from multiple sites was found to be significantly correlated with the abundance of thmA/dxmA genes, suggesting the usefulness of this probe to assess feasibility of monitored natural attenuation or bioremediation and to estimate degradation rates. http://www.estcp.com/content/download/28400/279897/file/ER-2301-FR.pdf


PRECONCENTRATION FOR IMPROVED LONG-TERM MONITORING OF CONTAMINANTS IN GROUNDWATER
White, B.J. and B.J. Melde.
SERDP Project ER-1604, 143 pp, 2014

Materials for the concentration of nitroenergetic and perchlorate targets from groundwater were developed for monitoring applications using novel molecular imprinting and structure direction techniques to obtain the necessary materials. The project demonstrated the potential for concentration of targets from ground and surface waters as well as from soil extracts. The functional characteristics of the materials were evaluated to determine the constraints on their use in in-line preconcentration of targets ahead of IMS and electrochemical sensing techniques. The systems subsequently were developed at the bench level and function was evaluated using commercially available portable sensors. An initial portable prototype also was developed and evaluated under a field scenario. http://www.estcp.com/content/download/25791/262561/file/ER-1604%20final%20report-Org%20cleared.pdf


SHALLOW, NON-PUMPED WELLS: A LOW-ENERGY ALTERNATIVE FOR CLEANING POLLUTED GROUNDWATER
Hudak, P.F.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol 91 No 1, 107-110, 2013

In a modeling evaluation of the capability of nonpumped wells with filter media for preventing off-site migration of contaminant plumes, linear configurations of nonpumped wells were compared to permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) in simulated shallow homogeneous and heterogeneous aquifers. While PRBs enabled faster contaminant removal and shorter distances of contaminant travel, nonpumped wells also prevented off-site contaminant migration. Overall results suggest that discontinuous, linear configurations of nonpumped wells can present a viable alternative to more costly PRBs for preventing off-site contaminant travel in some shallow aquifers.


COMPARISON OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER, FUNNEL AND GATE, NONPUMPED WELLS, AND LOW-CAPACITY WELLS FOR GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION
Hudak, P.F.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, Vol 49 No 10, 1171-1175, 2014

A modeling study compared the performance of a no-action alternative and four active groundwater remedies: an in-line permeable reactive barrier (PRB), a funnel-and-gate PRB, nonpumped wells with filter media, and a low-capacity extraction and injection well. The simulated aquifer had an average seepage velocity of 0.04 m/d, and the initial contaminant plume was 58 m long and 13 m wide. For each active alternative, mass transport modeling identified the smallest structure necessary to contain and remove the contaminant plume. Although the no-action alternative did not contain the plume, each active alternative did contain and remove the plume but with significantly different installation and operation requirements. Low-capacity pumping wells required the least infrastructure, with one extraction well and one injection well each discharging only 1.7 m3/d. The amount of time necessary to remove the contaminant plume was similar among active alternatives, except for the funnel-and-gate PRB, which required much more time. Results of this study suggest that for a relatively narrow contaminant plume and modest seepage velocity, low-capacity wells could be an effective alternative for groundwater remediation.


A GEOENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATION OF AN OPTIMISATION MODEL
Azimi, K., C. Merrifield, E. Gallagher, and D. Smith.
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013. 1859-1862, 2013

A network of monitoring wells was installed in and around a refinery in the mid 1990s as part of an investigation of the impact of local groundwater on corrosion of buried foundations and underground storage facilities. Oil-contaminated groundwater was evident in some of the monitoring wells. A second project began in 2000 to delineate the extent of the oil contamination mound(s) beneath the refinery and devise appropriate remedial measures. Of 30 initial monitoring wells, 15 were found still operational inside the refinery in 2000. An optimization technique, the Maximal Covering Location Problem, assisted with augmentation of the monitoring network. The sampling results obtained from the augmented and optimized network of monitoring wells were analyzed using a geostatistical tool, thus enabling cost-effective delineation of oil contamination hot spots beneath the refinery. http://www.geotech-fr.org/sites/default/files/congres/cimsg/1859.pdf


RATIONAL SOLITARY WELL SPACING IN SOIL REMEDIATION PROCESSES
Valavanides, M.S. and E.D. Skouras.
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, Vol 23 No 11, 1-5, 2014

This paper addresses design aspects of soil remediation processes and suggests a rational well-spacing scheme to optimize the operational efficiency of systems and processes, considered in terms of pollutant extracted per kW of mechanical power dissipated in pumps. The optimization scheme is proposed on the provisions of a universal map for steady-state two-phase flow in porous media, demarcating the process operational efficiency over the domain of the process operational parameters, i.e., the pollutant/water flow-rate ratio and the capillary number. Process efficiency is considered over a formation volume containing a single well. Pertinent Decomposition in Prototype Flows (DeProF) model scaling law predictions for reduced mechanical power dissipation are integrated across the formation control volume. Global values of energy utilization then are estimated in terms of the process design parameters, i.e., the capillary number at the vicinity of the wellbore (Ca0), the duty oil/water flowrate ratio (r), and the radius of influence (cP). Given the maximum permissible value of Ca0, the overall efficiency of the process appears to increase with decreasing cP. http://users.teiath.gr/marval/publ/Valavanides_Skouras_SIFEB390_2014.pdf


HORIZONTAL IN-WELL TREATMENT SYSTEM AND SOURCE AREA BYPASS SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION
Inventors: Divine, C.E., G. Leone, J.B. GilloW, T. Roth, H. Brenton, and M.S. Spurlin; Assignee: ARCADIS Corporate Services, Inc., Highlands Ranch, CO. U.S. Patent 8,596,351 B2, 22 pp, 3 Dec 2013

The application relates to a sustainable and green remedial approach for in situ remediation. The system and method use directionally drilled horizontal wells filled with granular reactive media for groundwater remediation, generally installed in the direction of groundwater flow. "Flow-focusing" behavior is leveraged to capture and passively treat proportionally large volumes of groundwater in situ. The system and method perform well in environments of low hydraulic conductivity where the success of other in situ remediation methods is controlled by aquifer injectability. Reactive media are selected according to the contaminants to be treated and site characteristics. Energy conservation and other considerations can achieve considerable cost savings. In another embodiment, a source area bypass comprises one or more horizontal wells constructed in a manner to allow cleaner groundwater to bypass a NAPL zone or high-concentration contaminant source area and discharge downgradient. Reactive media may or may not be used in the source area bypass. In some configurations, groundwater pumps can be installed to enhance performance. http://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/pdfs/US8596351.pdf



General News
USE OF COMPOUND-SPECIFIC STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN VAPOR INTRUSION AND INDOOR SOURCES OF VOCS: USER'S GUIDE FOR CSIA PROTOCOL
Beckley, L., T. McHugh, T. Kuder, and P. Philip.
ESTCP Project ER-201025, 20 pp, July 2014

Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) can be used as a building-specific vapor intrusion investigation tool to augment data from other investigation methods. Its primary utility is to provide an independent line of evidence to distinguish between vapor intrusion and indoor sources of VOCs. This CSIA protocol involves collection of subsurface source (i.e., groundwater) and indoor air samples. Concentrations of target VOCs from these media must be known or estimated to develop CSIA sampling parameters (e.g., sample collection time). This document describes the applicability of CSIA for vapor intrusion investigations, provides a step-by-step procedure for sample collection, and offers guidelines for data interpretation. http://www.estcp.com/content/download/28579/281163/file/ER-201025-GD.pdf


CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS REMEDIATION: REMEDY SELECTION FOR CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS
The Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) Contaminated Sediments Team.
CS-2, 514 pp, 2014

General categories of contaminated sediment remedial technologies covered in this document include monitored natural recovery and enhanced monitored natural recovery, in situ treatment, capping (conventional and amended), and removal (dredging and excavation). Additional factors to consider as part of the evaluation process are summarized (e.g., feasibility, cost, stakeholder and local governments concerns). This text was developed in two different formats:
Web-based document: http://www.itrcweb.org/contseds_remedy-selection/
PDF file: http://clu-in.org/download/contaminantfocus/sediments/Sediment-ITRC-CS-2.pdf.


BEST PRACTICES FOR RISK-INFORMED DECISION MAKING REGARDING CONTAMINATED SITES: SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP SERIES
National Research Council.
National Academies Press, Washington, DC. ISBN: 978-0-309-30305-7, 210 pp, 2014

DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) is reviewing alternative approaches to increase effectiveness and improve cost efficiencies of its cleanup activities, especially for sites that will have residual contamination when active cleanup is complete. EM convened workshops in October 2013 and January 2014 on best practices for risk-informed remedy selection, closure, and post-closure control of sites with radioactive and chemical contamination that challenge remediation to unrestricted release. For Workshop #1, the report examines holistic approaches for remediating sites with multiple contaminant sources and post-closure uses, as well as approaches for incorporating a sustainability framework into decision-making regarding site remediation, closure, and post-closure control. For Workshop #2, the report focuses on post-closure controls, assessment of long-term performance of site remedies, and best practices for risk-based remediation decisions. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18747



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