U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Technology Innovation News Survey

Entries for June 1-15, 2014

Market/Commercialization Information
INDEFINITE DELIVERY CONTRACT FOR AE SERVICES FOR THE REGIONAL ACQUISITION ENVIRONMENTAL TOOLS (REAT), SOUTH ATLANTIC DIVISION
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, USACE District Mobile, Mobile, AL.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4614, Solicitation W91278-14-R-0051, 2014

A-E services are required to provide professional environmental engineering and service support or to manage numerous environmental initiatives for U.S. military, civil, and federal agencies throughout the world, including DoD Headquarters, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, U.S. Army Reserves, U.S. Army National Guard, U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corps, Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Homeland Security, National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control, U.S. EPA, and other federal and state agency projects. This announcement will result in multiple awards being made from small business set-aside. Three POOLS will be established: POOL A - Conservation/NEPA; POOL B - Compliance/Pollution Prevention; and POOL C - Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste/Design. Each firm responding to this solicitation must indicate the POOL (A, B, or C) to which its response applies. Multiple awards within each POOL will be made from this solicitation. A firm could be selected to receive an award in each of the three POOLs. Work under this contract is limited to $99M over the 5-year period of performance. Firm-fixed-price contracts will be negotiated. The NAICS code for this action is 541330. Submittals must be received by 3:00 PM CT, August 21, 2014. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/USA/COE/DACA01/W91278-14-R-0051/listing.html


SOIL SAMPLING
Department of the Air Force, 375th Contracting Squadron, Scott AFB, IL.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4610 & FBO-4614, 2014

The 375th Contracting Squadron at Scott AFB, Illinois, is contemplating separate awards for the service of environmental sampling at the Middlemarker location and the Plum Hill site at Scott AFB. Each contractor shall measure, sample, analyze, and test environmental media for the presence of contaminants specified in the statements of work. Each award will be solicited as a 100% HUBzone business set-aside, NAICS code 541620. The combined synopsis/solicitation files are attached to the respective notices at FBO.gov.



Cleanup News
REMEDIAL ACTION COMPLETION REPORT (CDRL A001B) AND PRELIMINARY CLOSEOUT REPORT, FORMER AIR FORCE PLANT PJKS, WATERTON CANYON, COLORADO
Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment, 44 pp, 2013

A pilot study conducted at PJKS in 2004-2005 to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ anaerobic reductive dechlorination (ARD) of TCE and NDMA in bedrock source areas showed a decline in TCE contamination, which in 2006 led to the expansion of an interim corrective measure to stimulate ARD in the D-1 area groundwater plume. Horizontal and vertical injection wells delivered sodium lactate, emulsified edible oil (EEO), nutrients, and Dehalococcoides (dhc) to the Fountain Formation aquifer. In 2008, two full-scale biobarriers were constructed via injection of EEO, sodium lactate, and dhc into direct-push boreholes to target the alluvial transition groundwater areas, provide a barrier to plume migration, and further deplete TCE contamination in the downgradient plume. A technical impracticability waiver is recorded in the ROD for NDMA in the crystalline bedrock due to geological and technological limitations, although the VOCs in the bedrock are expected to meet MCLs. http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-03/documents/air-force-plant-pjks-ra-completion-report-pcor-2-24-2014.pdf

EFFICIENCIES AND OPTIMIZATION OF WEAK BASE ANION ION-EXCHANGE RESIN FOR GROUNDWATER HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM REMOVAL AT HANFORD
Nesham, D.O., K.A. Ivarson, J.P. Hanson, C.W. Miller, P. Meyers, and N.M. Jaschke.
WM2014: Waste Management Symposia, 3-6 March 2014, Phoenix, AZ. Paper 14202, 2014

DOE has successfully converted a series of groundwater treatment facilities to use a new treatment resin that is delivering more than $3 million in annual cost savings and efficiency in removing Cr(VI) from the groundwater at DOE's Hanford site. Beginning in 1995, groundwater treatment was based on pump and treat with ion exchange using Dowex™ 21K, a regenerable, strong-base anion-exchange resin. The required regeneration of the resin was performed off site. In recognition of the need for significant expansion of the groundwater Cr(VI) treatment capacity, tests were conducted to demonstrate the performance of different resins in the specific groundwater chemistry of different waste areas. The testing demonstrated that ResinTech SIR-700®, a weak-base anion single-use resin, removed chromium effectively, had a significantly higher capacity than the other resins tested, could be disposed of efficiently on site, and would eliminate the need to sample, package, transport, and return resin for regeneration. http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1123709


Demonstrations / Feasibility Studies
REMEDIATION PROPOSAL: SOUTH RIVER AND A SEGMENT OF THE SOUTH FORK SHENANDOAH RIVER, VIRGINIA
South River Science Team, 310 pp, 2013

An in situ pilot demonstration to test the efficacy of biochar to reduce mercury bioavailability is ongoing (July 2011 to the present) in a ~0.2-acre pond located within the 2-year floodplain at relative river mile 9.3. Biochar was applied to half the pond, while the other half was isolated as a control. In addition to testing treatment efficacy, another objective is to assess possible unintended consequences of the amendment on local biota. During the first year following biochar application, significant reductions of biological Hg uptake were observed in the pond. The pilot target is a ≥50% reduction of inorganic Hg and MeHg concentrations in water, sediment, and biota. A summary of the pilot demonstration is available in Appendix A of this report (PDF pages 173-194). http://southriverscienceteam.org/news/techdocs/SR_RemediationProposal_2013-10-23_Final.pdf


WHOLE-LAKE NITRATE ADDITION FOR CONTROL OF METHYLMERCURY IN MERCURY-CONTAMINATED ONONDAGA LAKE, NY
Matthews, D.A., D.B. Babcock, J.G. Nolan, A.R. Prestigiacomo, S.W. Effler, C.T. Driscoll, S.G. Todorova, and K.M. Kuhr. Environmental Research, Vol 125, 52-60, 2013

In 2011, a whole-lake nitrate addition pilot test was conducted in Hg-contaminated Onondaga Lake, New York, with the objective of limiting release of methylmercury (MeHg) from the pelagic sediments to the hypolimnion through maintenance of nitrate-N concentrations >1 mg N/L. A liquid calcium-nitrate solution was added to the hypolimnion as a neutrally buoyant plume about three times per week during the summer stratification interval. Maximum hypolimnetic concentrations of MeHg and soluble reactive phosphorus decreased 94% and 95% respectively from 2009 levels, suggesting increased sorption to Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides in surficial sediments as the regulating mechanism. Increased MeHg concentrations generally observed in the upper waters during fall turnover did not occur in 2011, resulting in decreased exposure of aquatic organisms to MeHg. For additional information, see the Report for the Third of Three Years of the Nitrate Addition Pilot Test (2013) in the Hypolimnion of Onondaga Lake: http://www.dec.ny.gov/docs/regions_pdf/nitrate13a.pdf.


HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM REMOVAL: RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT TO THE CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH
City of Glendale, California, Dept. of Water and Power, 161 pp, 2013

This report provides technical feasibility and cost data for removing Cr(VI) from drinking water. In spring 2010, the city of Glendale, California, constructed two demonstration facilities consisting of a 425 gpm treatment using weak-base ion exchange (WBA) and a 100 gpm system using reduction/coagulation/filtration (RCF). The WBA resin converts Cr(VI) to Cr(III), retains Cr(III) on the resin, and can achieve levels <1 ppb Cr(VI). The RCF coagulation and filtration processes are similar to conventional water treatment, but ferrous sulfate (rather than ferric iron) is used to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III), in the process producing iron floc with which the Cr(III) adsorbs or coprecipitates. The RCF process with granular media filtration can reliably achieve Cr(VI) concentrations <1 ppb and total Cr concentrations <5 ppb; however, due to the multiple treatment process steps, RCF is relatively labor intensive. Both systems achieved the target Cr level of 5 ppb. The RCF was shut down in July 2012, and the WBA continues to operate. http://www.ci.glendale.ca.us/government/packets/GWP_030413/3b.pdf Supporting documents: http://www.glendaleca.gov/government/departments/glendale-water-and-power/residential-customers/water-conservation-information/hexavalent-chromium-removal-research-project.


PROPOSED REMEDIAL ACTION PLAN, AREA OF CONCERN E, ATLANTIC FLEET WEAPONS TRAINING AREA - VIEQUES, FORMER NAVAL AMMUNITION SUPPORT DETACHMENT, VIEQUES, PUERTO RICO
Naval Facilities Engineering Command, 20 pp, Nov 2013

A 2002 multiphase extraction pilot study removed ~11,000 gallons of free-phase product at a cost of $113,000, and since that time, no appreciable free-phase product has been observed in site wells. Two other pilots were conducted in 2010 and 2011. A soil denitrification-based bioremediation pilot study—calcium nitrate injections into the soil at a cost of ~$70,000—was conducted to ensure that petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the unsaturated zone remained below levels representing a soil-to-groundwater leaching concern. Additionally, an in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) pilot study using persulfate was conducted to evaluate ISCO effectiveness and the estimated timeframe to treatment goals. The ISCO pilot, covering the entire affected area at a cost of ~$400,000, effectively reduced contaminant concentrations in groundwater below regulatory standards. The preferred alternative for this site is groundwater monitoring and institutional controls, with ISCO as a contingency. http://public.lantops-ir.org/sites/public/vieques/Site_Files_/Public%20Review/AOC%20E%20and%20AOC%20I%20PRAP/AOC_E_PRAP_Final_English.pdf


INNOVATIVE STRATEGY FOR LONG TERM MONITORING OF METAL AND RADIONUCLIDE PLUMES
Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Millings, Margaret R.; Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.
WM2014: Waste Management Symposia, 3-6 March 2014, Phoenix, AZ. 10 pp, 2014

Savannah River National Laboratory has initiated a field pilot test using alternative protocols for long-term monitoring of metals and radionuclides (U, Sr-90, I-129, tritium). Monitoring efforts are focused on measurement of low-cost metrics related to hydrologic and chemical conditions that control contaminant migration. The paradigm is being tested at the SRS F-Area where an innovative passive remedial system is being monitored and evaluated over the long term prior to traditional regulatory closure. The proposed strategies are expected to be more effective in early identification of potential risks and cost-effective as well because controlling variables are relatively simple to measure. These variables also directly reflect the evolution of the plume through time, so that the monitoring strategy can be modified as the plume ages. http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1122792



Research
A MULTI-SITE SURVEY TO IDENTIFY THE SCALE OF THE 1,4-DIOXANE PROBLEM AT CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER SITES
Adamson, D.T., S. Mahendra, K.L. Walker, S.R. Rauch, S. Sengupta, and C.J. Newell. Environmental Science & Technology Letters, Vol 1 No 5, 254-258, 2014

Investigators used intensive data mining to identify and evaluate >2,000 sites in California where groundwater has been affected by chlorinated solvents and/or 1,4-dioxane (dioxane). Dioxane was detected at 194 of the sites, with 95% containing one or more chlorinated solvents. Dioxane frequently co-occurs with 1,1,1-TCA (76% of the study sites); however, no dioxane analyses were conducted at 332 (67%) of the 1,1,1-TCA detection sites. At sites where dioxane has been identified, plumes are dilute but not large (median maximal concentration of 365 µg/L; median plume length of 269 m) and have been delineated to a similar extent as typically co-occurring chlorinated solvents. At sites where dioxane and chlorinated solvents co-occur, dioxane plumes frequently are shorter than the chlorinated solvent plumes (62%). Study results suggest that dioxane has not migrated beyond chlorinated solvent plumes and existing monitoring networks at the majority of sites, and that the primary risk is the large number of sites where dioxane likely is present but has not been identified.


REMOVAL OF 1,4-DIOXANE FROM WATER BY ADSORPTION TO RESINS
Martineau, C., H. Prasad, and P. Roll.
Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA. E-project-042814-212645, 59 pp, 2014

Researchers evaluated resins with varying properties and characteristics as adsorbents for removing 1,4-dioxane from water. Four resins—Dowex L-493, Amberlite XAD4, Dowex Marathon C, and Amberlite XAD7HP—were tested to determine if adsorption is a viable option for removing this water-soluble contaminant. Dowex Optipore L-493 achieved the largest removal of contaminant for the least amount of resin used. https://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-042814-212645/


USE OF A REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODEL TO DESCRIBE REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION (RD) AS A REMEDIATION DESIGN TOOL: APPLICATION AT A CAH-CONTAMINATED SITE
Viotti, P., P.R. Di Palma, F. Aulenta, A. Luciano, G. Mancini, and M.P. Papini.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol 21 No 2, 1514-1527, 2014

A numerical model was developed to describe the complex set of biochemical processes that occur in chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon (CAH)-contaminated groundwater when an exogenous electron donor is added. The reactive pattern is based on the degradation pathways of both chlorinated ethanes and ethenes, and it includes electron donor production (H2 and acetate) from the fermentation of an organic substrate as well as rate-limiting processes related to electron acceptor competition. Calibration was carried out using data obtained at a CAH-contaminated site in Italy. Early outcomes of model simulations of different application scenarios indicate that cleanup targets can be achieved only if source longevity is reduced; hence, metabolic RD is expected to produce beneficial effects because it is known to enhance CAH biodegradation. http://aulentalab.webplus.net/ESPR_2014_(21)1514-1527.pdf


EFFECTS OF BIOAUGMENTATION ON ENHANCED REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF 1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE IN GROUNDWATER: A COMPARISON OF THREE SITES
Scheutz, C., Durant, N.D., Broholm, M. M.
Biodegradation, Vol 25 No 3, 459-478, 2014

Microcosm studies investigated the effects of bioaugmentation with a mixed Dehalococcoides (dhc, culture KB-1)/Dehalobacter (dhb, culture ACT-3) culture on biological enhanced reductive dechlorination for treatment of TCA and chloroethenes in groundwater at three Danish sites. The microcosms were amended with lactate as electron donor and monitored over 600 days. The microcosms were amended with various concentrations of chloroethanes (monochloroethane [CA] or TCA) and/or chloroethenes (PCE, TCE, or 1,1-DCE). Results indicate that low ppm levels of TCA (<3 mg/L) in aquifer systems do not inhibit dechlorination of PCE or TCE to ethane, and also show that co-bioaugmentation with dhc and dhb cultures can be an effective strategy for accelerating treatment of chloroethane/chloroethene mixtures in groundwater, with the exception of CA.


ASSESSMENT OF INTRINSIC BIODEGRADATION POTENTIALS IN AN AQUIFER CONTAMINATED WITH CHLORINATED ETHENES IN THE VICINITY OF NOWA DEBA
Kiecak, A., E. Kret, M. Cichostepska, and G. Malina.
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering (Series S), Vol 20 No 2, 265-278, 2013

Natural attenuation (NA) of organic compounds in groundwater relies mainly on intrinsic biodegradation processes. Investigators followed the U.S. EPA guideline, Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater (1998), to assess NA potential in TCE- and PCE-contaminated groundwater in the vicinity of the Nowa Deba waterworks in southeast Poland. Data from the literature and well-piezometer monitoring were used to develop a conceptual model of contaminant fate and transport from source to receptor. Results indicated inadequate evidence for intrinsic biodegradation of TCE and PCE, and thus a limited potential for the indigenous microorganisms alone to achieve sufficient biodegradation of contaminants to serve as a remedial/risk reduction option at the site. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/eces.2013.20.issue-2/eces-2013-0019/eces-2013-0019.xml


LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE AND PASSIVE ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
Hengen, T.J., M.K. Squillace, A.D. O'Sullivan, and J.J. Stone.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol 86, 160-167, 2014

A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with the construction, operation, and maintenance of active and passive acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment options implemented or considered at a major coal mine in New Zealand. The assessment used a comparative functional unit of kg acidity removed per day for each of eight treatment options. The treatment scenarios included active limestone and hydrated lime treatments and compared them to passive treatments using limestone and waste materials (e.g., mussel shells). The active treatment scenarios generally had greater LCA impacts compared to an equivalent level of treatment for the passive approaches. Lime slaking had the greatest LCA effect, whereas passive treatments incurred consistently lesser impacts, save for a passive treatment with a purchased energy scenario. A 50% reduction in transportation distances yielded the lowest LCA impacts for all scenarios. More information: http://www.sdstate.edu/abe/wri/activities/ESDWC/upload/Hengen_LCA_Acid_Mine_Deposits.pdf


CO-TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE WITH MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER: PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
Hughes, T.A. and N.F. Gray.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol 20 No 11, 7863-7877, 2013

An investigation of co-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with municipal wastewater (MWW) using the activated sludge process showed that continuous AMD loading to the activated sludge reactors during co-treatment did not cause a significant decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, or total organic carbon removal. Average COD removal rates ranged from 87-93%. Enhanced phosphate removal was observed in reactors loaded with Fe- and Al-rich AMD, with final effluent TP concentrations <2 mg/L. Removal rates for dissolved Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb were 52-84%, 47-61%, 74-86%, and 100%, respectively. Mn and Zn removal were strongly linked to acidity: removal from net-acidic AMD was <10% for both metals, whereas removal from circum-neutral AMD averaged 93-95% for Mn and 58-90% for Zn. Premixing with screened MWW was the most effective process option in terms of AMD neutralization and metal removal; however, significant MWW alkalinity was consumed, suggesting the need for an alkali supplement. See more on this project at http://www.asmr.us/Publications/Conference%20Proceedings/2011/0283-Hughes-IE.pdf


DEGRADATION RATES FOR PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS UNDERGOING BIOVENTING AT THE MESO-SCALE
Khan, A.A. and R.G. Zytner.
Bioremediation Journal, Vol 17 No 3, 159-172, 2013

Bioventing experiments undertaken at the meso-scale were compared with previously completed micro-scale tests to evaluate the important scale-up factor. The meso-scale system holds 4 kg of soil (loamy sand, silt loam, or a mixture), with bioventing conditions controlled for nutrients, airflow, and water content. Results over a 30-day period showed a two-stage degradation pattern that encompassed first-order degradation rates as compared with the single-stage, first-order degradation rate determined in the micro-scale study. After 8 days, the degradation rate constants decreased significantly. Comparison of the measured degradation rate values with the results from the micro-scale experiments gave scale-up factors varying from 1.9 to 2.7, depending on soil type. The differences in meso- and micro-scale degradation rates illuminate the importance of scale-up factors when transferring feasibility study results to the field. See additional information in A.A. Khan's Ph.D. thesis at https://dspace.lib.uoguelph.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10214/7487/Khan_Alamgir_201309_PhD.pdf?sequence=1.


RECLAMATION OF A MIDWEST BROWNFIELD SITE USING AGRONOMIC AND TURF SPECIES
Johnson, Amanda M., Master's thesis, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, 84 pp, Dec 2013

Each infertile and/or toxic site must be assessed for revegetation species on a case-by-case basis. Plant species were assessed for recolonization of a brownfield in Muncie, Indiana. A greenhouse study of perennial ryegrass, red clover, and sunflower included amendments with leaf compost and mycorrhizal fungi. Ryegrass and compost were studied at the brownfield site. Red clover was capable of concentrating the greatest quantity of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Pb in aboveground biomass (all soil treatments combined). Compost plus mycorrhizal fungi treatment resulted in highest Cd, Cu, and Zn plant concentrations (all plant treatments combined). Compost resulted in the highest tissue Cr and Ni concentrations. Results indicate the feasibility of revegetatation by turf and legume species at the study site. https://cardinalscholar.bsu.edu/bitstream/123456789/197844/1/JohnsonA_2013-1_BODY.pdf


COMBUSTION OF SALIX USED FOR PHYTOEXTRACTION: THE FATE OF METALS AND VIABILITY OF THE PROCESSES
Delplanque, M., S. Collet, F. Del Gratta, B. Schnuriger, R. Gaucher, B. Robinson, and V. Bert. Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol 49, 160-170, 2013

Combustion assays were performed to determine the efficiency of Salix used for Cd phytoextraction at a metal-contaminated dredged sediment landfill site in France and to elucidate the distribution of metals in the end products of the combustion process. Results indicated that phytoextraction could reduce total Cd burden of the sediment from 2.39 mg/kg DW to 2 mg/kg DW in 19 years (best case). Combustion experiments showed that Cd and Zn occurred at the highest concentrations in the particulate fraction of the flue gas (flyash), rather than in the bottom ash. The use of industrial or collective boilers equipped with efficient filters is required to minimize air pollution. Given this constraint, wood produced during phytoextraction should be usable for bioenergy production. The possible uses of bottom ash are discussed.


PORE WATER EXTRACTION TEST NEAR 241-SX TANK FARM AT THE HANFORD SITE, WASHINGTON, USA
Eberlein, S.J., D.L. Parker, C.L. Tabor, and M.J. Holm.
WM2014: Waste Management Symposia, 3-6 March 2014, Phoenix, AZ. Paper 14168, 2014

A proof-of-principle test is underway near the Hanford site 241-SX Tank Farm. The test will evaluate a potential remediation technology using tank farm-deployable equipment to remove contaminated pore water from vadose zone soils. Due to radioactive soil contamination and the challenges of drilling near tanks, small-diameter direct-push drilling techniques applicable to tank farms are being utilized for well placement. To address space and weight limitations in working around tanks and obstacles within tank farms, the aboveground portions of the test system have been constructed to allow deployment flexibility. The test system utilizes low vacuum over a sealed well screen to establish flow into an extraction well. Extracted pore water is collected in a well sump and then pumped to the surface using a small-diameter bladder pump. Researchers hope that if pore water extraction using this system can be successfully demonstrated, local contamination in the vadose zone around the tanks can be targeted for cleanup. http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1105044


HYDROPHOBIC HIGH SURFACE AREA ZEOLITES DERIVED FROM FLY ASH FOR OIL SPILL REMEDIATION
Sakthivel, T., D.L. Reid, I. Goldstein, L. Hench, and S. Seal.
Environmental Science & Technology, Vol 47 No 11, 5843-5850, 2013

As produced, fly ash is a hydrophilic material with poor sorption capacity. A simple two-step chemical modification process is designed to improve the oil sorption capacity. First, the fly ash was transformed to a zeolitic material via an alkali treatment, which increased the specific surface area up to 404 m2/g. The material then was surface-functionalized to form a hydrophobic material with high contact angle up to 147° that floats on the surface of an oil-water mixture. The reported oil sorption capacities of X-type zeolite sorbent with different surface functionalization (propyl-, octyl-, octadecyl-trimethoxysilane, and esterification) were estimated to 1.10, 1.02, 0.86, and 1.15 g/g, respectively. Oil sorption was about five times higher than the as-received fly ash (0.19 g/g) and also had high buoyancy critical for economic cleanup of oil over water. Additional information: http://www.nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=128410.


EFFICIENCY OF NON-IONIC SURFACTANTS: EDTA FOR TREATING TPH AND HEAVY METALS FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL
Baziar, M., M.R. Mehrasebi, A. Assadi, M.M. Fazli, M. Maroosi, and F. Rahimi.
Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, Vol 11 No 1, 41-, 2013

Results from a study of the effects of soil washing time, agitation speed, concentration of surfactant, chelating agent, and pH on removal efficiency showed that nonionic surfactants (Tween 80, Brij 35) under optimal conditions achieved 70-80% and 60-65% TPH removal, respectively. Addition of chelating agent (EDTA) significantly increased Cd and Pb removal. Soil washing using non-ionic surfactants and EDTA removed TPH and heavy metals effectively from the contaminated soil. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3932998/ Correction: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3932794/


ENHANCED SEQUENTIAL FLUSHING PROCESS FOR REMOVAL OF MIXED CONTAMINANTS FROM SOILS
Reddy, K.R. and A.Z. Al-Hamdan.
Water, Air and Soil Pollution, Vol 224:1709 (13 pp), 2013

This study showed that the removal of co-existing heavy metals and PAHs from soils is possible through careful selection of the sequence in which the flushing of chelant and surfactant occurs and depends on the site-specific soil and contaminant conditions. Additional research is needed to establish the optimal flushing scheme (sequence duration and flow velocity) to remove the mixed contaminants effectively and efficiently. http://www.uic.edu/classes/cemm/cemmlab/224-12-2013.pdf



General News
A RISK/BENEFIT APPRAISAL FOR THE APPLICATION OF NANO-SCALE ZERO VALENT IRON (NZVI) FOR THE REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SITES
Bardos, P., B. Bone, P. Daly, D. Elliott, S. Jones, G. Lowry, and C. Merly.
NanoRem Issues Paper, 89 pp, 2014

This report discusses the relative risks and benefits of NZVI usage for in situ remediation (i.e., the potential for the NZVI treatment agent itself to present human health or environmental risks) and its sustainability as a technique; identifies the areas where further investigation might be required; and provides an overview of NZVI use in full-scale, pilot, and lab studies to date. This paper is intended to help stakeholders by identifying key issues and providing a basis for evidence-based decisions. http://www.nanorem.eu/Displaynews.aspx?ID=525


LAND CONTAMINATION: DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY PROFILES
Environment Agency (UK) website, May 2014

The industry profiles developed by the UK Department of Environment provide developers, local authorities, and anyone else interested in land contamination with information on the processes, materials, and wastes associated with 47 individual industries. Although the profiles were produced in 1995, they are still valid. They are not definitive studies; instead, they introduce some of the technical considerations that need to be borne in mind at the start of an investigation for possible contamination. The original publications were not available electronically but recently have been scanned into PDF documents. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/department-of-environment-industry-profiles An associated page offers technical guidance on contamination at particular types of sites (i.e., acid tar, chemical weapons, explosives manufacturing, defense, refining, and nuclear) at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/land-contamination-technical-guidance-on-special-sites.


GUIDELINE FOR APPLICATION OF TREE CORING AS AN INITIAL SCREENING TOOL FOR TYPICAL POLLUTANTS IN THE SUBSURFACE
Algreen, M. and S. Trapp.
TIMBRE Project FP7-ENV-2010.3.1.5-2, 26 pp, 2014

Previous guidelines report that tree coring is more or less useful for a variety of VOCs, such as BTEX, MTBE, trimethyl benzene, and chlorinated solvents (PCE, TCE, DCE, VC). This new guideline goes beyond the previous guidelines by including the use of a technique to screen for heavy metals, plus some new examples for BTEX. This update is based on field applications at sites contaminated with BTEX, chlorinated solvents, and/or heavy metals. The description of the method and its application covers sampling, chemical analysis, and data treatment, followed by a brief overview of current phytoscreening literature. http://www.andrea-kubitz.de/timbre/tl_files/timbre/Intern/4%20Work%20Packages/WP4/timbre_265364_D4.2_TC_guideline.pdf


THE MEGASITE MANAGEMENT GUIDELINE
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ & TIMBRE, 32 pp, 2013

Europe has over 20,000 large and complex contaminated sites. TIMBRE is approaching megasite remediation challenges at former steel plants, military bases, airports, and mining sites as opportunities for using innovative technologies for site investigation and cleanup; assessing sustainable re-use options in ecological, economic, and social terms; and including a wide variety of stakeholders and policymakers in the revitalization process. The Megasite Management System (MMS)—which comprises this guideline, the MMS website (http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=19603), and the Megasite Management Toolsuite software-based instrument—provides a comprehensive working basis for the efficient and sustainable remediation and re-use of megasites. http://www.ufz.de/mmt-guideline-en/epaper/epaper.pdf


ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP STATUS NOW A CLICK AWAY
Schneider, J.
U.S. Air Force News, 12 Mar 2014

With the development of a new on-line system, administrative record documents for over 170 active and closed Air Force installations in the continental United States now are available electronically in a centralized location at http://afcec.publicadmin-record.us.af.mil. The on-line database makes the documents easily accessible to the general public as well as to regulators and other officials. CERCLA and RCRA dictate that administrative records include an extensive array of documents, such as RODs, engineering and cost evaluations, site inspection reports, state closure documents, and other material. Until now, the files typically were available only at the base or in a local library. Now, with ready electronic access, every installation is on the same level while saving on storage space, complying with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, and preserving the integrity of administrative record documents. The system is the culmination of a three-year process, which included converting all existing installation documents into electronic files and developing a database for centralized storage. http://www.af.mil/News/ArticleDisplay/tabid/223/Article/473699/environmental-cleanup-status-now-a-click-away.aspx


ICER 2013: 6TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, 19-21 DECEMBER 2013, AURANGABAD, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS
JERAD Publications, ISBN: 978-81-909379-6-2, 955 pp, 2013

The Journal of Environmental Research and Development (JERAD) has organized the International Congress of Environmental Research (ICER) for the last six years, since 2007. The 904 abstracts presented in the program represent a wide range of environmental research topics, including contaminant characterization and biological remediation technologies. http://www.icer13.jerad.org/icer13souviner.pdf



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