Technology Innovation News Survey
Entries for June 1-30, 2012
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-3898, Solicitation DTFAWN-12-R-00179, 2012
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for environmental remediation services to address a diesel fuel spill at the subject property located at 6551 Hollister Avenue, Santa Barbara, California. The proposed remedial scope includes the excavation of TPH-D impacted soil, limited groundwater extraction, the placement of an in situ treatment material, backfill and compaction of the excavation area, and associated reporting and project management. An oxygen-releasing compound or equivalent will be added to the excavation area to enhance and accelerate in situ aerobic degradation of the dissolved-phase diesel. The applicable North American Industry Classification System code for this project is 562910, Remediation Services. A workplan describing the scope of work and approved by the FAA has been prepared by another consulting firm, and it forms the basis of the activities summarized in the RFP. Project technical specification and drawings have been posted with the notice at FBO.gov; however, interested parties are recommended to visit the FAA Contract Opportunities website at http://faaco.faa.gov/
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-3898, Solicitation SRAC-2012-September, 2012
EPA's Superfund Remedial Program hosts quarterly informational meetings with firms that currently hold contracts for Superfund work—a group named the Superfund Remedial Action Contractors (SRAC)—although the meetings are open to all contractors who might be interested in working for Superfund. The topics covered at these meetings include new contracting requirements that are being applied, such as background clearances; lessons learned from the field; optimization or green remediation; and discussions of issues affecting firms as they perform work for EPA. The meetings do not discuss procurement actions or procurement-sensitive material. The SRAC meeting will be held September 6, 2012, from 1:30 to 3:30 pm at 2777 Crystal Drive, First Floor Conference Center South (S-1204), Arlington, Virginia. The meeting can be followed live via webcast at https://epa.connectsolutions.com/r3x2v0z7c1f/
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-3893, Solicitation SOL-HQ-12-00004, 2012
U.S. EPA is issuing a Request for Proposal (RFP) for the Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI). This RFP is being issued as a total small business set aside and is open to all small business socioeconomic classifications. The primary purpose of this contract will be to provide technical assistance services in the following areas: information assistance and expertise, community education, technical assistance needs assessment and plan development, and community infrastructure support as described the performance work statement, which is posted at www.epa.gov/oamsrpod/ersc/TASC/index.htm
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-3899, Solicitation SSS-CBRNECOTSMOD, 2012
The Joint Product Manager for Consequence Management (JPdM-CM) under JPM Guardian is conducting a market survey to identify currently available, commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment and developmental technologies in the areas of personal protection equipment; decontamination and portable sampling equipment; and point and stand-off detection and identification equipment for chemical and biological warfare agents, toxic industrial chemicals/toxic industrial materials, explosives, and radiological materials. Only companies that have the capability to provide this equipment should respond to this announcement. The JPdM-CM COTS Equipment Database is utilized by COTS modernization decision makers to collect chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNe) product information, such as vendor test data, independent and government test reports, specification sheets, manuals, and other information pertinent to the development of the decisions made during the COTS modernization process. This solicitation requests that vendors of CBRNe protection and detection equipment and technologies seeking consideration by COTS modernization working groups add and update their product information to the JPdM-CM COTS Equipment Database. Manufacturers of equipment with the capabilities previously mentioned will be provided a user name and password to access an online product survey. Manufacturers are encouraged to populate all fields applicable to their product, to include all logistical information, associated ancillary equipment, and any third-party test data and certifications. Each manufacturer is restricted to viewing and accessing information regarding their equipment and company only as the data collected in the equipment database is reserved for access by government organizations. Manufacturers already possessing access to the survey are requested to review their information and ensure it is up to date. The online survey will be available for vendor input on July 29, 2012, and final inputs are requested no later than October 12, 2012. Participation in the survey is voluntary. Manufacturers providing detailed and current information on their products and developmental technologies may increase opportunities for those products or manufacturers to be considered for future requirements associated with this program. https://www.fbo.gov/notices/4425276b1aec42ad3c53122e7e099ca1
DOE has issued the topics for its FY-13 SBIR/STTR Release 1, which will open August 13, 2012, and close October 15. Within the four major program areas, the Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program supports fundamental, peer-reviewed research on complex systems in climate change, subsurface biogeochemistry, genomics, systems biology, radiation biology, radiochemistry, and instrumentation. BER funds research at public and private research institutions and at DOE laboratories. BER also supports leading-edge research facilities used by public- and private-sector scientists across a range of disciplines: structural biology, DNA sequencing, functional genomics, climate science, the global carbon cycle, and environmental molecular science. Among the topics of interest within this program are technologies for subsurface characterization and monitoring (Phase I, $150,000/Phase II, $1,000,000), with grant applications sought in the following subtopics: 1) Mapping and Monitoring of Hydrogeologic Processes, and 2) Real-Time, In Situ Measurements of Geochemical, Biogeochemical, and Microbial Processes in the Subsurface. In addition to the specific subtopics listed, DOE invites grant applications in other areas that fall within the scope of the topic descriptions. A letter of intent is required and must be received by September 4, 2012. Complete details are available at http://science.energy.gov/sbir/
EPA has developed the Roadmap to help guide its efforts with both internal and external stakeholders in the implementation of specific strategies to meet the new challenges and opportunities posed by Presidential executive order, Presidential Memorandum, Presidential Strategy, Presidential Initiative, and recent legislation. EPA's vision is expressed as follows: The EPA will promote innovation that eliminates or significantly reduces the use of toxic substances and exposure to pollutants in the environment and that also promotes growth of the American economy. Building upon the EPA's history of scientific and technological expertise, the Agency will seek out prospective technological advances that have the greatest potential to achieve multiple environmental goals. Consistent with its statutory and regulatory authorities, the EPA will partner with a diverse set of new and existing stakeholders to speed the design, development and deployment of the next generation of environmental technologies, creating a cleaner environment and a stronger economy for our nation and the world. Working with new and existing partners and stakeholders, EPA will seek tangible, outcome-oriented opportunities to catalyze and support technology innovation across the range of the Agency's work. www.epa.gov/envirofinance/EPATechRoadmap.pdf
This funding opportunity is advertised to assist local organizations, especially watershed groups, to begin actual construction projects to improve the water quality of streams affected by acid mine drainage. Lands and water eligible for reclamation or drainage abatement expenditures under Section 404 of Public Law 95-87 are those that were mined for coal or which were affected by such mining, wastebanks, coal processing, or other coal mining processes, except as provided for under Section 411 of Public Law 95-87, prior to August 3, 1977, and for which there is no continuing reclamation responsibility under state or other federal laws. Eligible applicants are nonprofits having a 501(c)(3) status with the IRS other than institutions of higher education. Expected Number of Awards: 15. Estimated Total Program Funding: $2,000,000. Award Ceiling: $100,000. Award Floor: $5,000. The closing date for this opportunity is October 1, 2012. Applications will be accepted throughout the fiscal year. www.grants.gov/search/search.do?mode=VIEW&oppId=176873
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-3892, Solicitation L12PS00983, 2012
The Bureau of Land Management, Barstow Field Office, has a requirement for remediation of 22 abandoned mine land features on public lands located in San Bernardino County, California. This requirement is 100% set aside for small business under NAICS code 562910. Potential offerors should be able to obtain a copy of the solicitation at Fedconnect.net on or about August 3, 2012, under RFQ L12PS00983. No hard copies of the solicitation will be provided. Facsimile quotes will be accepted at 951-697-5309. The deadline for submission of quotes is August 22, 2012 at 4:00pm (PDT). https://www.fbo.gov/spg/DOI/BLM/CA/L12PS00983/listing.html
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-3892, Solicitation L12PS00985, 2012
The Bureau of Land Management, Needles Field Office, has a requirement for remediation of 13 abandoned mine land features on public lands located within BLM's California Desert District (Zone 11 NAD 83). This requirement is 100% set aside for small business under NAICS code 562910. Potential offerors should be able to obtain a copy of the solicitation at Fedconnect.net on or about August 7, 2012, under RFQ L12PS00985. No hard copies of the solicitation will be provided. Facsimile quotes will be accepted at 951-697-5309. The deadline for submission of quotes is August 23, 2012, at 4:00pm (PDT). https://www.fbo.gov/spg/DOI/BLM/CA/L12PS00985/listing.html
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-3892, Solicitation L12PS00757, 2012
The Bureau of Land Management, Ridgecrest Field Office, has a requirement for remediation of 20 abandoned mine land features on public lands within BLM's California Desert District (Zone 11 NAD 83). This requirement is 100% set aside for small business under NAICS code 562910. Potential offerors should be able to obtain a copy of the solicitation at Fedconnect.net on or about August 8, 2012, under RFQ L12PS00757. No hard copies of the solicitation will be provided. Facsimile quotes will be accepted at 951-697-5309. The deadline for submission of quotes is August 24, 2012, at 4:00pm (PDT). https://www.fbo.gov/spg/DOI/BLM/CA/L12PS00757/listing.html
The Science and Technology Program supports three separate but related efforts: (1) projects that develop and demonstrate improved technologies to address public safety and environmental issues related to the mining of coal and reclamation of the lands affected after mining (applied science projects); (2) projects that encourage efforts to collect, preserve, and convert into digital format maps of underground mines that provide valuable information regarding miner safety, mine pool evaluation, and mine subsidence investigation; and (3) projects that convert into digital form mine permit data and site maps so that the information can be used in a geographic information system accessible by all federal, state, and tribal agencies for assessing impacts of coal mining and reclamation on the environment. Data conversion projects also can convert existing legacy databases to modern database software and/or provide hardware and programming assistance for states to transition to managing and using the digital data. Although no funds are specifically earmarked for projects in 2013, funding may be allocated by OSM during the year based on agency priorities. Eligible applicants include state, county, and city governments; public and state-controlled institutions of higher education; and federally recognized Native American tribal governments. The closing date for this opportunity is given as October 1, 2012; however, applications will be accepted through December 17, 2012. www.grants.gov/search/search.do?mode=VIEW&oppId=176875
EPA is awarding $3 million to 15 grantees through the Environmental Workforce Development and Job Training (EWDJT) program. The grants will recruit, train, and place unemployed individuals in jobs that address environmental challenges in their communities. These investments will protect the health of local communities by targeting economically disadvantaged neighborhoods where environmental cleanups and jobs are often most needed. EPA's EWDJT program seeks to stimulate partnership development among local workforce investment boards, community-based organizations, governmental entities, and academic institutions. The program also helps to enhance the skills and the availability of local labor while providing communities the flexibility to design training programs that meet their individual market's demands and preferences. Since 1998, EPA has awarded more than $42 million under the EWDJT program. As of June 2012, approximately 10,300 individuals had completed training and about 7,300 obtained employment in the environmental field with an average starting hourly wage of $14.12. The development of this "green" workforce will allow the trainees to develop skills that will make them competitive in the construction and redevelopment fields. Graduates of the program are equipped with skills and certifications in various environmental fields, including lead and asbestos abatement, environmental site sampling, construction and demolition debris recycling, underground storage tank removal, ecological restoration, and green building techniques. See the full news release for the list of 15 grantees: http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/d0cf6618525a9efb85257359003fb69
EPA has announced $69.3 million in grants for new investments to provide communities with funding necessary to clean up and redevelop contaminated properties, boost local economies, and create jobs while protecting public health. The 245 grantees include tribes and communities in 39 states across the country, funded by EPA's Brownfields Assessment, Cleanup, Revolving Loan Fund, and Revolving Loan Fund Supplemental grants. The grants awarded will assess and clean up abandoned industrial and commercial properties. Nearly half of the grantees this year are new awardees who demonstrate a high level of commitment for undertaking specific projects and leveraging the funding to move those projects forward. Approximately 29% of the grants are being awarded to non-urban areas with populations of 100,000 or less, 16% are being awarded to "micro" communities with populations of 10,000 or less, and the remaining grants are being awarded to urban areas with populations exceeding 100,000. There are an estimated 450,000 abandoned and contaminated waste sites in America. In 2011, EPA's Brownfields Program leveraged 6,447 jobs and $2.14 billion in cleanup and redevelopment funds. Since the program's inception, EPA's brownfields investments have leveraged more than $18.3 billion in cleanup and redevelopment funding from a variety of public and private sources and have resulted in ~75,500 jobs. More than 18,000 properties have been assessed, and over 700 properties have been cleaned up. Brownfields grants also target under-served and low income neighborhoods—places where environmental cleanups and new jobs are most needed. See the list of all awarded brownfields grants by state: http://cfpub.epa.gov/bf_factsheets/
FCS 2012: Federal Contaminated Sites National Workshop, April 30 - May 3, 2012, Allstream Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Real Property Institute of Canada, 40 slides, 2012
The membrane interface probe (MIP) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) are powerful assessment tools that are used to provide semi-quantitative data of subsurface contamination. The MIP is used to provide information on aqueous-phase contamination and LIF to characterize petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) source zones. Both MIP and LIF were used prior to and during in situ remediation of PHC contamination at a site in central Ontario. Based on pre-injection MIP and LIF results, the initial chemical oxidation design was altered. The MIP and LIF were remobilized to the site during the in situ program, and results are presented to show how the altered in situ design achieved efficient distribution of the oxidant and good PHC destruction. http://www.rpic-ibic.ca/documents/2012_fcs_presentations/Tunnicliff_E.pd
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided $7.2 billion for programs administered by EPA to protect and promote both green jobs and a healthier environment. On July 28, 2009, EPA awarded the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) $2,694,000 to protect human health and the environment by cleaning up leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites. DEQ's Cooperative Agreement set a target of retaining or creating ~26 jobs and completing cleanups on an estimated eight sites. Project records show that 36.56 jobs were retained during this work: 9.14 full-time employee (FTE) DEQ staff and 27.42 FTE contractors. DEQ completed assessments at 10 LUST sites and cleanups at nine sites. A key provision of the Recovery Act stipulated that funds could be used to pay for cleanups only where the responsible party was unknown, unwilling, or unable to pay, or if the cleanup was an emergency response. All the sites were required to be "shovel-ready." Although 13 eligible sites were selected initially for site assessment and/or cleanup, the completion of several projects under budget allowed the performance of work at an additional five sites. All 18 sites are located in rural communities. The work performed varied from small projects to large soil removal actions. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) was employed at several sites to remediate source areas. At the Fort Rock General Store (Fort Rock, Lake County), levels of 1,2-dichloroethane, a common "lead scavenger" in petroleum, remained above DEQ risk-based concentrations for the drinking water pathway in two drinking water wells. The corrective action implemented SVE with enhanced bioremediation in the shallow source area and saw the replacement of two impacted water wells. At the Lone Elk Market (Spray, Wheeler County), Recovery Act funding was used to rehabilitate and modify the existing groundwater treatment and SVE systems to remove source mass from beneath the site building and contain the dissolved-phase plume during removal. This report contains a description of each of the 18 projects. http://www.deq.state.or.us/lq/pubs/docs/tanks/RecoveryActFinalPerformanc
2011 National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Bismarck, ND, June 11-16, 2011. ASMR, Lexington, KY. 253-268, 2011
In early 2010, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds were available to implement the "shovel-ready" design package for a biochemical reactor (BCR) module planned for the abandoned Golinsky Mine site in northern California. The construction site, located near Lake Shasta, is only accessible by boat, followed by a 1-mile trip on a narrow dirt road. During construction, this restricted site access was further complicated by the highest lake levels in years, which required the relocation of the construction contractor's mobilization site. The construction of the BCR within the footprint of an abandoned limestone quarry required a few minor design modifications, but the logistics of moving 1,000-plus tons of organic substrate, drainage gravel, HDPE liner, riprap, pipes, and construction equipment safely across Lake Shasta in a coordinated barge and ground transportation program was probably the greatest project accomplishment. In October 2010, supersacks of mixed rice hulls, wood chips, and limestone were proportioned and mixed with hay and placed in the Module 1 geomembrane-lined BCR. Subsequently, 6 cubic yards of composted manure and residual pilot BCR substrate were rototilled into the upper surface of substrate. The construction effort was essentially complete by late October 2010 at a cost of about $1.3 million. The advancement of this project from the first bench-scale investigations into the practicality of BCR in 2003 to the construction of a full-scale module in 2010 spanned seven years. http://www.asmr.us/Publications/Conference%20Proceedings/2011/0253-Gusek
A Sandia National Laboratories technology has been used to remove radioactive material from more than 43 million gallons of contaminated wastewater at Japan's damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The seawater pumped in to cool the reactors became contaminated with cesium, a common fission product in reactor fuel, and could not be released back into the ocean. Crystalline silico-titanates, or CSTs, are inorganic, molecularly engineered ion exchangers that can be sized specifically for certain elements, serving as a molecular sieve that can separate the target elements from a liquid matrix, such as radioactive wastewater. CSTs were developed in the early 1990s by a team of scientists from Sandia and Texas A&M who found that a certain class of synthetic zeolite captures some radioactive elements, like cesium, more effectively than mineral zeolites or clay. When CSTs are used to strain highly radioactive elements from contaminated water, the remaining radioactive waste can be treated in a more economical and less hazardous way. UOP LLC worked with Sandia through a Cooperative Research & Development Agreement to produce a commercial-scale manufacturing procedure for the CSTs, developing a technology to bind the material into a beaded form so it could be used in ion exchange columns. The license assigned to UOP in 1994 was one of the first issued by Sandia, which had begun its technology transfer program just a year earlier. UOP is now the exclusive U.S. manufacturer of CSTs. Toshiba Corp., Shaw Global Services LLC, and AVANTech Inc. use CSTs in their Simplified Active Water Retrieve and Recovery System, which has been in operation at Fukushima since fall 2011 and continues to reduce radioactive cesium successfully to nondetectable levels. https://share.sandia.gov/news/resources/news_releases/fukushima_cleanup/
CHPRC-01701-FP, 12 pp, Jan 2012 [presented at Waste Management 2012 Conference]
At the Hanford Site, chromium used as a corrosion inhibitor in the reactor cooling water was introduced into the groundwater as a result of planned and unplanned discharges from reactors during plutonium production. Beginning in 1995, groundwater treatment was implemented via ion exchange in pump-and-treat facilities using Dowex 21 K, a regenerable strong base anion-exchange resin. Regeneration of Dowex 21 K is currently performed off site. The resin was installed in a 4-vessel train, with resin removal required from the lead vessel about once a month. The system was expanded to 8 trains (32 vessels) in 2007. In 2008, DOE recognized that regulatory agreements would require significant expansion in the groundwater chromium treatment capacity. Onsite testing was performed in 2009 and 2010 with a variety of potential resins in two separate facilities, using groundwater from specific remediation sites to demonstrate resin performance. Test results demonstrated that a weak base anion single-use resin, ResinTech SIR-700, removed chromium effectively, had a significantly higher capacity, could be disposed of efficiently on site, and would eliminate the complexities and programmatic risks from sampling, packaging, transporting, and returning the resin for regeneration. ResinTech SIR-700 was installed in Hanford's 100-DX groundwater treatment facility, which began operation in November 2010, and also was used in the 100-HX sister facility, which started up in September 2011, increasing total chromium treatment capacity to 25 trains (100 vessels). In existing facilities that utilize Dowex 21 K, ResinTech SIR-700 is being tested to see if the system can be converted to the new resin. This paper describes the results of the testing, performance in the facilities, continued optimization of the pump-and-treat facilities, and the estimated savings and non-tangible benefits of the conversion. http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/1034781/
Demonstrations / Feasibility Studies
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), Project RC-200610, 236 pp, Nov 2011
This project demonstrated the efficacy of a bimetallic treatment system (BTS) to remove and rapidly degrade PCBs found in structural coatings. The BTS technology, which consists of elemental or zero-valent magnesium (ZVM) coated with a small amount of palladium in a solvent solution capable of hydrogen donation, has two functions: (1) to extract PCBs from weathered, decades-old coating material such as paint; and (2) to degrade the extracted PCBs. Results are presented for pre-demonstration laboratory testing and field testing conducted at the Vertical Integration Building, Cape Canaveral, Florida, and at Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Wisconsin. Variables evaluated in the demonstration include the substrates on which the PCB coatings have been applied (i.e., metal, concrete, or wood); age of the coatings; adhesion; appearance; and substrate condition on removal of the BTS and PCB coating. Field testing included applying the treatment substrate to various surfaces with coatings containing PCBs and evaluating the removal of the PCBs from the surface and destruction of the PCB by the treatment substrate. The demonstration goal was to reach PCB concentrations below the Toxic Substances Control Act limit of 50 parts per million in the paint on all structures tested. The goal was achieved, but depending on initial concentrations, multiple BTS applications were required. www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/14626/169538/file/RC-200610-FR.pdf
FCS 2012: Federal Contaminated Sites National Workshop, April 30 - May 3, 2012, Allstream Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Real Property Institute of Canada, 33 slides, 2012
EHC® has been used on many sites for reductive treatment of carbon tetrachloride and daughter compounds, chloroethenes, chloroethanes, and pesticides in groundwater. The product consists of a combination of solid, plant-based carbon powder and fine zero-valent iron (ZVI). The product is slurried and injected into a groundwater plume to create ideal conditions for reductive dechlorination. As the carbon ferments, soluble volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are released to the groundwater to provide a carbon source for indigenous dehalogenating microorganisms. In combination, the VFAs and ZVI create strong, stable reducing conditions that make dechlorination reactions more energetically feasible. As a solid, the applicability of ECH® can be limited at sites with very tight formations or existing permanent well systems. EHC-L® was developed to address these limitations. Like EHC®, EHC-L® is based on a combination of slow-release fermentable carbon and iron. The difference is that EHC-L® is 100% cold-water soluble. The new product combines lecithin, which is very slowly metabolized, and a specialized ferrous salt that is protected from rapid oxidation. Lecithin vesicles that form upon emulsification provide further protection to the ferrous iron to ensure oxidation does not occur until after the product is injected, and then at a controlled rate. Lab studies indicate EHC-L® supports TCE treatment efficiencies similar to those attained with EHC. Beginning in the spring of 2011, field pilot tests were initiated to obtain field data on removal efficiencies supported by EHC-L®. This presentation offers case studies of two EHC® projects, followed by a discussion of field work with EHC-L®, including difficulties encountered. http://www.rpic-ibic.ca/documents/2012_fcs_presentations/Bolanos-Shaw_E.
E2S2: Environment, Energy Security and Sustainability Symposium and Exhibition, 9-12 May 2011, New Orleans, Louisiana. Presentation 12399, 24 slides, 2011
This presentation describes the development of a bioelectrochemical (BEC) system for in situ remediation of hydrocarbon impacted sites. This microbial fuel-cell system is based upon the subsurface installation of an anode and cathode in contact with groundwater. The circuit is completed when bacteria metabolize hydrocarbons, release electrons to the anode, and the electrons flow to the cathode through a resistor, where they combine with oxygen to produce a small amount of water. With this approach, a perpetual provider of electron acceptors is left in the field to promote contaminant biodegradation. No energy is required to run the BEC system (in fact, a small amount is produced), and a properly designed system functions with little maintenance. A 90-day lab study using soil and groundwater from a petroleum-contaminated site was set up with an active BEC system reactor and a control reactor with no active treatment. DRO concentrations reduced from 94 mg/L to ND in 13 days, and GRO reduced from 93 mg/L to 1 mg/L in 86 days. Voltage in the BEC system ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 mV, indicating bacterial activity during the test period. In a subsequent field pilot test, five BEC systems were installed within a network of groundwater monitoring wells. Results indicate bacterial activity with voltage readings ranging from 0 to 3.5 mV. Contaminant data from the field pilot are presented. http://e2s2.ndia.org/pastmeetings/2011/tracks/Documents/12399.pdf
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation, Vol 32 No 2, 31-39, 2012
A low-cost, reliable method is presented for long-term in situ autonomous monitoring of subsurface resistivity and temperature in a shallow, moderately heterogeneous subsurface. Probes to be left in situ were constructed at relatively low cost with an electrode spacing of 5 cm. Once installed, the probes were wired to a CR-1000 Campbell Scientific Inc. datalogger at the surface for electrical imaging of infiltration fronts in the shallow subsurface. From June 2005 through May 2008, the system collected apparent resistivity and temperature data from 96 subsurface electrodes set to a pole-pole resistivity array pattern and 14 thermistors at regular intervals of 30 cm. From these data, a temperature and resistivity relationship was determined within the vadose zone (to a depth of ~1 m) and within the saturated zone (at depths between 1 and 2 m). The high vertical resolution of the data with resistivity measurements on a scale of 5-cm spacing coupled with surface precipitation measurements taken at 3-minute intervals for a period of roughly 3 years allowed unique observations of infiltration related to seasonal changes. Both the vertical resistivity instrument probes and the datalogger system functioned well for the duration of the test period and demonstrated the capability of this low-cost monitoring system.
Geo-Frontiers 2011. ASCE, Reston, VA. 856-865, 2011
Acidity generated from the oxidation of pyrite and other sulfidic compounds that exist at shallow depths in acid sulfate soils (ASS) presents a challenging environmental problem. In this paper, the authors present an overview of their experience in coastal Australia, a critical evaluation of currently practiced geo-environmental remediation methods, and a demonstration of a pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) installed to control acidic groundwater pollution in ASS terrain within the Shoalhaven region of NSW, Australia. The selection of recycled concrete, a commonly available alkaline waste material, and the systematic investigation of its longevity are highlighted through a series of batch and column experiments. In addition, the improvement in groundwater quality achieved by the pilot recycled-concrete PRB is discussed with reference to field data collected over a period of 3.5 years. http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1934&context=engpapers
Environmental Science & Technology, Vol 45 No 19, 8467-8474, 2011
To perform a general assessment of treatment efficiency, a mass balance project was undertaken for two types of constructed wetlands (CWs)—planted gravel filters and plant root mat systems—for treating benzene- and MTBE-contaminated groundwater under field conditions. Contaminant fate was investigated in the respective water, plant, and atmosphere compartments by determining water and atmospheric contaminant loads and calculating plant contaminant uptake, thereby allowing for an extended efficiency assessment of CWs. The highest total VOC removal was achieved during summer and was more pronounced for benzene compared to MTBE. According to the results and the calculations generated by the balancing model, the main benzene removal processes were degradation in the rhizosphere and plant uptake: 76% and 13% for the gravel bed CW and 83% and 11% for the root mat system, respectively. Volatilization flux of benzene and MTBE was low (<5%) for the gravel bed CW, while direct contact of aqueous and gaseous phases in the root mat system favored total MTBE volatilization (24%). With this applied approach, detailed contaminant mass balances allow for conclusive quantitative estimation of contaminant elimination and distribution processes (e.g., total, surface, and phytovolatilization, plant uptake, rhizodegradation) in CWs under field conditions.
Pesticide Mitigation Strategies for Surface Water Quality. American Chemical Society, ACS Symposium Series 1075, 29-37, 2011
In agricultural areas, pesticides enter aquatic receiving waters through irrigation and storm runoff, spray drift, or even atmospheric deposition. Innovative mitigation strategies are needed to address pesticide contamination of surface waters. Management practices incorporating vegetation and phytoremediation have demonstrated success in reducing pesticide loads to rivers, lakes, and streams. This chapter focuses on vegetative management practices—constructed wetlands, drainage ditches, and rice fields—that have been studied in the intensively cultivated Mississippi Delta. Summaries of research results and field implementations are presented, as well as potential future directions for additional research. www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/person/3938/2012/MooreetalACSbk-2011-1075.
Ecological Impacts of Toxic Chemicals. Bentham Science Publishers, Ltd. eISBN: 978-1-60805-121-2, Chapter 11:225-237, 2011
Aquatic ecosystems possess unique capabilities that allow them to eliminate or remediate certain levels of pollutants. Primarily through the presence of vegetation, aquatic ecosystems are known to be capable of removing or at least decreasing pollutant loads travelling through the aqueous phase. In addition to vegetation, soil/sediment and microbes play a significant role in transferring or transforming pollutants to acceptable levels in aquatic ecosystems. This chapter focuses on some of the primary literature describing phytoremediation of organic pollutants (e.g., hydrocarbons and pesticides) and inorganic pollutants (e.g. metals and nutrients). Research indicates the popularity and success of phytoremediation techniques used to remove both organic and inorganic pollutants from the water column. www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/person/3938/2012/MooreKrogerJacksonBookCha
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, Vol 220 No 1, 69-79, 2011
Investigators measured sediment pesticide effects on an aquatic invertebrate animal, Hyalella azteca, living in and on contaminated sediment. The study took place in a divided constructed wetland, one half with plants and one half without plants, to investigate how well this wetland with or without plants could decrease the effects of two pesticides, diazinon and permethrin, on aquatic animals. The study showed that plants performed more effectively in decreasing the effects of pesticides in sediment within the first 5 hours. Results also showed that a water-retention time of 21 days in the subject constructed wetland was needed to remediate sediment toxicity. These results are potentially of interest to regulatory and other agencies and the pesticide industry by providing additional information to improve and sustain river, stream, and lake water quality using constructed wetlands as an effective conservation practice. http://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/50020/PDF
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol 77 No 21, 7611-7619, 2011
The application of transgenic plants to clean up areas affected by waste associated with heavy metal mining is a promising method for removing metal pollutants from soils; however, the effect of using genetically modified organisms for phytoremediation is a poorly researched topic in terms of microbial community structures, despite the important role of microorganisms in the health of soil. In this study, a comparative analysis of the bacterial and archaeal communities found in the rhizosphere of genetically modified (GM) versus wild-type (WT) poplar was conducted on trees at different growth stages (i.e., the rhizospheres of 1.5-, 2.5-and 3-year-old poplars) that were cultivated on contaminated soil alongside unplanted control soil. Based on the results of DNA pyrosequencing, poplar type and growth stages were associated with directional changes in the structure of the microbial community. The rate of change was faster in GM poplars than in WT poplars, but the microbial communities were identical in the 3-year-old poplars. This phenomenon may arise because of a higher rate and greater extent of metal accumulation in GM poplars than in naturally occurring plants, which resulted in greater changes in soil environments and hence the microbial habitat. http://aem.asm.org/content/77/21/7611.full?sid=e38f3b48-2f64-4db4-a475-5
Miljostyrelsen [Danish Environmental Protection Agency], Denmark. Environmental Project Nr. 1387, 79 pp, 2011 [The body of this publication is in Danish; only the Summary and Conclusions (p 9-10) and most of the bibliography are available in English.]
Reviewers examined over 80 papers published between 2002 and 2011 on remediation technologies that can be used to clean up point sources of pesticide contamination that pose a potential threat to groundwater. The review focused on the following pesticides used in Denmark and found in Danish groundwater wells: chlorophenoxy acids (especially MCPP, MCPA, 2,4-D, and dichlorprop), triazines (especially atrazine, simazine, cyanazine, and terbutylazine), nitro compounds (especially DNOC and dinoseb), isoproturon, diuron, bentazon, and glyphosate. Dichlobenil and BAM were not included in the literature search. This work is an update of a 2002 literature review. The reviewers found few field-scale studies; studies at the laboratory scale were in the majority. Owing to the lack of an adequate information base, the reviewers did not attempt to prepare generalized remediation technology recommendations for the removal of individual pesticides. Based on the available information, they recommended the initiation of pilot-scale studies to explore the potential of the following remediation technologies:
• Biological remediation (e.g., monitored natural attenuation or biostimulation) or in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) for phenoxy acids: MCPA, MCPP, dichlorprop, and 2,4-D.
• A combination of organic materials and zero-valent iron (ZVI) for triazines: atrazine, simazine, cyanazine, and terbutylazine.
• Biological remediation (including bioaugmentation) or ZVI for nitro compounds: DNOC and dinoseb.
• Chemical oxidation implemented either in situ or ex situ in combination with pumping for phenyl urea herbicides: isoproturon and diuron.
• ISCO with Fenton's reagent or ozone for the treatment of glyphosate.
No recommendable technologies were identified for the removal of bentazon. Although traditional pump-and-treat technologies were not considered in the update, pump and treat generally is applicable to the removal of pesticides from groundwater. The reviewers concluded that application of wide-spectrum technologies, such as ISCO or ZVI, or combined remedies might be a viable option for mixtures of several contaminating compounds. http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikationer/2011/09/978-87-92779-38-0.pdf
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol 205-206, 55-62, 2012
Three columns containing granular activated carbon (GAC) were placed on line at a groundwater pump and treat facility, saturated with MTBE, and regenerated with hydrogen peroxide under different chemical, physical, and operational conditions for three adsorption/oxidation cycles. Supplemental iron was immobilized in the GAC (~6 g/kg) through the amendment of a ferrous iron solution. GAC regeneration occurred under ambient thermal conditions (21 to 27°C), or enhanced thermal conditions (50°C). Semi-continuous peroxide loading resulted in saw tooth-like peroxide concentrations, whereas continuous peroxide loading resulted in sustained peroxide levels and was more time efficient. Significant removal of MTBE was measured in all three columns using $(USD) 0.6 H2O2/lb GAC. Elevated temperature played a significant role in oxidative treatment, given the lower MTBE removal at ambient temperature (62 to 80%) relative to MTBE removal measured under thermally enhanced (78 to 95%) and thermally enhanced, acid pre-treated (92 to 97%) conditions. Greater MTBE removal was attributed to increased intraparticle MTBE desorption and diffusion and higher aqueous MTBE concentrations. No loss in the MTBE sorption capacity of the GAC was measured, and the reaction by-products, TBA and acetone, were also degraded.
Environmental Science & Technology, Vol 45 No 19, 8106-8112, 2011
A study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and fate of perfluorochemicals (PFCs), emerging contaminants of concern, from land-applied municipal biosolids. Investigators evaluated the levels, mass balance, desorption, and transport of PFCs in soil receiving biosolids application at various loading rates. The study is the first to report levels of PFCs in agricultural soils amended with typical municipal biosolids. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFC in both biosolids (80 to 219 ng/g) and biosolids-amended soil (2 to 483 ng/g). Concentrations of all PFCs in soil increased linearly with increasing biosolids loading rate. These data were used to develop a model for predicting PFC concentrations in soil amended with typical municipal biosolids using cumulative biosolids loading rates. Mass balance calculations comparing PFCs applied versus those recovered in the surface soil interval indicated the potential transformation of PFC precursors. Lab desorption experiments indicated that the leaching potential of PFC decreases with increasing chain length and that previously derived organic-carbon normalized partition coefficients may not be accurate predictors of the desorption of long-chain PFCs from biosolids-amended soils. Trace levels of PFCs were also detected in soil cores from biosolids-amended soils to depths of 120 cm, suggesting potential movement of these compounds within the soil profile over time and confirming the higher transport potential for short-chain PFCs in soils amended with municipal biosolids. http://www.sludgenews.org/resources/documents/Jennifer_G._Sepulvado_et_a
JARQ: Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, Vol 45 No 2, 129-136, 2011
After isolating Nocardioides sp. PD653 and Mucor sp. DDF from contaminated soil as degraders of HCB and dieldrin, respectively, the authors devised an approach for introducing these organochlorine pesticide-degrading bacteria into contaminated media. They developed a soil-charcoal perfusion method using special charcoal (Charcoal A100) as a microhabitat and adsorbent of organic chemicals. The Charcoal A100 is enriched with a degrading bacterial consortium as a new material for bioremediation. This technology was applied successfully to the degradation of simazine in soil and aquatic environments by layering Charcoal A100 enriched with a simazine-degrading bacterial consortium (CD7) under the subsoil of contaminated sites. The material was effective for preventing penetration of simazine into subsoils and nearby aquatic environments for approximately two years. http://www.jircas.affrc.go.jp/english/publication/jarq/45-2/45-02-01.pdf
Applied and Environmental Soil Science, Vol 2012, Article ID 617236, 33 pp, 2012
Energetic materials consist of both explosives and propellants. When released to the biosphere, energetics are xenobiotic contaminants that pose toxic hazards to ecosystems, humans, and other biota. Soils worldwide are contaminated by energetic materials from manufacturing operations, military conflict, military training activities at firing and impact ranges, and open burning/open detonation of obsolete munitions. Energetic materials undergo varying degrees of chemical and biochemical transformation depending on the compounds involved and environmental factors. This paper addresses the occurrence of energetic materials in soil, including a discussion of their fates after contact with soil, with emphasis on the explosives TNT, RDX, and HMX, and the propellant ingredients nitroglycerin, nitroguanidine, nitrocellulose, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and perchlorate. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aess/2012/617236/
A 20-month in situ pilot test was conducted to evaluate the surface application of waste glycerol (WG) to reduce release of acid mine drainage (AMD) constituents from mine tailings. Beneficial characteristics of the WG include high aqueous solubility, high organic content, and high alkalinity. Four columns packed with fine-grained sulfide-rich tailings were incubated in the field under ambient temperature and precipitation conditions. The columns were periodically pumped to maintain an unsaturated condition. In the two replicate untreated control columns, diffusion of oxygen into the tailings resulted in large increases in dissolved Fe, sulfate, Mn, Mg, Al, Zn, and hydrogen peroxide acidity with an associated drop in pH. In the two replicate treated columns, WG was blended into the top 0.18 m of tailings seven months after the columns were established, resulting in large reductions in Fe, sulfate, hydrogen peroxide acidity, Al, Cu, and Mn. Observed pollutant reductions resulted from a combination of (1) neutralization of acidity by the potassium hydroxide present in the WG, (2) reduction of sulfate to hydrogen sulfide with subsequent precipitation of dissolved metals, and (potentially) (3) consumption of oxygen, slowing oxidation of the tailings. http://repository.lib.ncsu.edu/ir/handle/1840.16/7781
Water Resources Research, Vol 48, 18 pp, 2012
A tracer test was performed at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge site to assess the effect of addition of bicarbonate on U(VI) desorption from contaminated sediments in the aquifer and to compare equilibrium and rate-limited reactive transport model descriptions of mass transfer limitations on desorption. The tracer test consisted of injection of a 37 mM NaHCO3 solution containing conservative tracers followed by downgradient sampling of groundwater at various elevations and distances from the point of injection. Breakthrough curves show that dissolved U(VI) concentrations increased 1.2 to 2.6 fold above background levels, resulting from increases in bicarbonate alkalinity (from injectant solution) and Ca concentrations (from cation exchange). In general, more U(VI) was mobilized in shallower zones of the aquifer, where finer-grained sediments and higher solid-phase U content were found compared to deeper zones. An equilibrium-based reactive transport model incorporating a laboratory-based surface complexation model derived from the same location predicted the general trends in dissolved U(VI) during the tracer test but greatly overpredicted the concentrations of U(VI), indicating that the system was not at equilibrium. Inclusion of a multi-rate mass transfer model successfully simulated the nonequilibrium desorption behavior of U(VI). Local sediment properties such as sediment texture (weight percent <2 mm), surface area, cation exchange capacity, and adsorbed U(VI) were heterogeneous at the meter scale, and it was important to incorporate these values into model parameters to produce accurate simulations. http://earthsciences.typepad.com/files/fox-davis-2011wr011472-1.pdf
2011 National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Bismarck, ND, June 11-16, 2011. ASMR, Lexington, KY. 143-151, 2011
In an investigation of methods to mitigate radionuclide contamination of soils, particularly that of radium-226, a two-phase study is planned that incorporates an extensive literature review with lab results from radium-contaminated soils specific to a Wyoming mine site. The results will be used to determine a remediation strategy for the site. The technologies will be analyzed in relation to soil and vegetation characteristics typical of Wyoming uranium mine lands so that operators will have access to relevant information when deciding the best approach for handling radionuclide-contaminated soils. Preliminary results of the literature review show a dearth of studies on radium in soils, although some physical, biological, and chemical methods have been used and may warrant further consideration. http://www.asmr.us/Publications/Conference%20Proceedings/2011/0143-Cox-W
Environmental Science & Technology, Vol 45 No 23, 9959-9966, 2011
In this work, uranium bioreduction rates at the field scale are quantified for the first time, using an integrated approach that combines field data, inverse and forward hydrological and reactive transport modeling, and quantification of reduction rates at different spatial scales. The integrated approach is used to explore the impact of local-scale (tens of centimeters) parameters and processes on field-scale (tens of meters) system responses to biostimulation treatments and the controls of physicochemical heterogeneity on bioreduction rates. Using the biostimulation experiments at DOE's Old Rifle site, results show that the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity and solid-phase mineral (Fe(III)) play a critical role in determining field-scale bioreduction rates. Due to the dependence on Fe-reducing bacteria, field-scale U(VI) bioreduction rates were found to be largely controlled by the abundance of Fe(III) minerals at the vicinity of the injection wells and by the presence of preferential flow paths connecting injection wells to downgradient Fe(III)-abundant areas.
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation, Vol 32 No 2, 57-65, 2012
The characterization of heterogeneity in hydraulic conductivity (K) is a major challenge for subsurface remediation projects. Field studies have compared the K estimates obtained using various techniques, but to the authors' knowledge, no field-based studies so far have compared the performance of estimated K heterogeneity fields or the associated characterization costs. In this paper, the costs are compared of characterizing the three-dimensional K heterogeneity and its uncertainty estimates of a glaciofluvial aquifer-aquitard sequence at a field site (15 m x 15 m x 18 m) situated on the University of Waterloo campus. Geostatistical analysis of high-resolution permeameter K data obtained from repacked core samples in five boreholes is compared with hydraulic tomography analysis of four pumping tests consisting of up to 41 monitoring points per test. Aside from the comparison of costs, the performance of each method is assessed by predicting several pumping tests. The analysis reveals that hydraulic tomography is somewhat more costly than the geostatistical analysis of high-resolution permeameter K data due to the higher capital costs associated with the method; however, the equipment can be reused at other sites and the costs recovered over the life of the equipment. More significantly, hydraulic tomography is able to capture the most important features of the aquifer-aquitard sequence, leading to more accurate predictions of independent pumping tests, which suggests that more robust remediation systems might be designed if site characterization is performed with hydraulic tomography.
This project sought to answer key questions for determination of the environmental impact of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) that contain reduced-iron reactive media. A life-cycle assessment comparative study of the environmental sustainability of a pump-and-treat-system and a PRB was conducted based on 30 years of treatment, allowing for the quantification of environmental impacts (potentials for global warming, acidification, eutrophication, ozone depletion, and smog formation as well as human health effect), determination of the environmentally preferable technology, and identification of materials and processes that most influence the sustainability of each technology. The project also encompassed an investigation of the local environmental impacts (i.e., toxicity to microorganisms) of in situ remediation with reduced-iron reactive media. This work was conducted in two parts to investigate (1) the effect of zero-valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles and dissolved ferrous iron on bacterial cultures growing under anaerobic conditions, including the effect of nZVI age, and (2) the effect of iron sulfide nanoparticles and dissolved sulfide on bacterial growth, including the dissolution of FeS in the microbial growth medium. Equilibrium speciation modeling provided insight into the chemical changes in the presence of nZVI and the aqueous species responsible for observed effects. http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/89676/1/mrhig_1.pdf
This hydrogeophysical field experiment evaluated the ability of high-frequency (450 and 900 MHz) ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to characterize the release of gasoline over an annual cycle of in situ conditions. In August 2008, 200 liters of E10 gasoline were released into the unconfined sand aquifer at CFB Borden. The 900 MHz profiling clearly shows the development of shallow (i.e., above 10 ns) high reflectivity in the vicinity of the trench immediately after the release. Additional lateral extension of the high reflectivity zone was observed over the following 20 days until the seasonal water table low stand occurred, after which no further lateral movement was observed. Throughout the remainder of the monitoring, the 900 MHz profiling showed a long-term dimming of reflectivity at the periphery of the impacted zone. While direct imaging of the shallow impacted zone by the 450 MHz antennas was significantly obscured by the superposition with the direct air-ground wave arrival, its improved depth of penetration allowed the measurement of a velocity "pull-up" of an underlying stratigraphic interface resulting from the displacement of low-velocity water by high-velocity gasoline. The maximum pull-up was observed during the water table low stand. The ongoing changes in the pull-up magnitude during the remainder of the observation period suggest the continued redistribution of fluids in the impacted zone. Because of the shallow depth of the gasoline-impacted zone, the effects of freezing during winter were observed in the GPR imaging. The presence of the gasoline-impacted zone appears to have affected the depth of freezing, causing a depression of the frozen soil base. The dimming of the direct air-ground wave complex indicates that the contaminant phase brought to the surface by the water table fluctuations has affected the nature of the near-surface freezing. http://uwspace.uwaterloo.ca/handle/10012/6351
In this thesis project, laboratory, pilot-scale, and full-scale investigations were conducted to study phosphorus (P) sorption in blast furnace slag (BF slag) filters. A full-scale wastewater treatment system comprising a willow bed followed by two parallel P-filters with BF slag and Filtralite® P media was examined for wastewater treatment efficiency, nutrient accumulation in willow biomass, and biomass production. The willow bed efficiently reduced the content of total suspended solids and biodegradable organic matter in the influent wastewater and prevented the clogging of downstream phosphorus filters during one year of operation. The Filtralite® P treatment train simultaneously removed over 90% of BOD and 70% of P during the experimental period, whereas the coarse-grained BF slag used in the treatment system was inefficient in retaining P, and the concentrations of oxygen-consuming compounds were elevated downstream of the filter. Additionally, laboratory, pilot-scale, and full-scale investigations were conducted to examine arsenic (As) removal from soil using physical separation and chemical extraction (i.e., soil washing). Arsenic mobilization from contaminated soil was affected by pH, the content of organic substances, and redox potential. The nature of these effects depended on contaminant type (i.e., wood preservatives) and the soil calcium content. Extractions at elevated temperatures facilitated high As mobilization from contaminated soil at short contact times. The fastest As mobilization was achieved by using an acid oxalate citrate solution rather than reductive or alkaline extraction solutions at room temperature. Soil treatment, comprising the exclusion of the fine soil fraction prior to chemical extraction applied at an elevated temperature, was efficient in decontaminating soils, even for short contact times; however, the recovered mass of soil after decontamination is appreciably smaller than the soil mass prior to decontamination, and the process consumes a high amount of energy and lowers the soil quality, which limits the potential end use of the decontaminated soil. The alkaline extraction effluents could be decontaminated at a pH of 4 to 5 with the addition of a coagulant, a process facilitated by the exclusion of the fine soil fraction from the chemical extraction step. http://pure.ltu.se/portal/files/36285392/doktorsavhandling.pdf
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol 77 No 18, 6313-6322, 2011 [LBNL-5336E]
Environmental microbial community analysis typically involves amplification by PCR (polymerase chain reaction), despite well-documented biases. Researchers with DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have developed two methods of PCR-independent microbial community analysis using the high-density microarray PhyloChip: direct hybridization of 16S rRNA (dirRNA) or rRNA converted to double-stranded cDNA (dscDNA). The scientists compared dirRNA and dscDNA communities to PCR-amplified DNA communities using a mock community of eight taxa, as well as experiments derived from three environmental sample types: chromium-contaminated aquifer groundwater, tropical forest soil, and secondary sewage in seawater. Community profiles by both direct hybridization methods showed differences that were expected based on accompanying data but that were missing in PCR-amplified communities. Taxon richness decreased in RNA compared to that in DNA communities, suggesting a subset of 20% in soil and 60% in groundwater that is active; secondary sewage showed no difference between active and inactive populations. Direct hybridization of dscDNA and RNA is thus a viable alternative to PCR-amplified microbial community analysis, providing identification of the active populations within microbial communities that attenuate pollutants, drive global biogeochemical cycles, or proliferate disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3187179/
Chemosphere, Vol 85, 660-665, 2011
To evaluate the efficacy of bioimmobilization of Cr(VI) in groundwater at DOE's Hanford facility, investigators conducted a series of microcosm experiments using a range of commercial electron donors with varying degrees of lactate polymerization (polylactate). These experiments were conducted using Hanford Formation sediments (coarse sand and gravel) immersed in Hanford groundwater, which were amended with Cr(VI); several types of lactate-based electron donors (Hydrogen Release Compound [HRC], primer-HRC [pHRC], and extended-release HRC); and the polylactate-cysteine form (Metal Remediation Compound [MRC]). Results showed that polylactate compounds stimulated an increase in bacterial biomass and activity to a greater extent than sodium lactate when applied at equivalent carbon concentrations. At the same time, concentrations of headspace hydrogen and methane increased and correlated with changes in the microbial community structure. Enrichment of Pseudomonas spp. occurred with all lactate additions, and enrichment of sulfate-reducing Desulfosporosinus spp. occurred with almost complete sulfate reduction. The results of these experiments demonstrate that amendment with the pHRC and MRC forms effectively removed Cr(VI) from solution, likely by both direct (enzymatic) and indirect (microbially generated reductant) mechanisms. http://hazenlab.utk.edu/files/pdf/2011Brodie_etal_Chemosphere.pdf
Environmental Science & Technology, Vol 46, 1044-1054, 2012
A high-density phylogenetic microarray (the PhyloChip) was applied to track bacterial and archaeal populations through different phases of remediation at Ft. Lewis, Washington, where the groundwater is contaminated with TCE. Biostimulation with whey and bioaugmentation with a Dehalococcoides-containing enrichment culture were implemented to enhance dechlorination. As a measure of species richness, over 1,300 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in DNA from groundwater samples extracted during different stages of treatment and in the bioaugmentation culture. To determine active members within the community, 16S rRNA from samples were analyzed by microarray and ~600 OTUs were identified. A cDNA clone library of the expressed 16S rRNA corroborated the observed diversity and activity of some of the phyla. Principle component analysis of the treatment plot samples revealed that the microbial populations were constantly changing during the course of the study. Dynamic analysis of the archaeal population showed significant increases in methanogens at the later stages of treatment that correlated with increases in methane concentrations of over 2 orders of magnitude. Overall, the PhyloChip analyses provided insights into the microbial ecology and population dynamics at the TCE-contaminated field site that were useful for understanding the in situ reductive dechlorination processes. http://superfund.berkeley.edu/pdf/392.pdf
The phytoremediation process uses living plants to remove, transfer, stabilize, and/or destroy contaminants in the soil, air, and groundwater. This process can be implemented for radioactive toxins, metals and metalloids, and many types of organic compounds, including hydrocarbons. Between 2007 and 2011, Professor Stevie Famulari and her Landscape Architecture students gathered, illustrated, and compiled phytoremediation research data to develop this extensive information resource for better practice in phytoremediation design. The database can be searched by type or name of contaminant and common or scientific names of plants. http://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/famulari_research/index.php
Springer, New York. ISBN: 978-94-007-1956-9, 436 pp, 2012
This book provides a comprehensive review designed to aid in the understanding and critical evaluation of phytoremediation design, implementation, and monitoring at contaminated groundwater sites. Part I presents the historical foundation of the interaction between plants and groundwater, describes fundamental groundwater concepts for plant physiologists, and introduces basic plant physiology for hydrogeologists. Part II presents information on how to assess, design, implement, and monitor phytoremediation projects for hydrologic control. Part III covers how plants extract and detoxify a wide range of organic xenobiotics in contaminated groundwater systems and provides various approaches for assessing and monitoring remediation progress. The concepts are emphasized with numerous case studies, illustrations, and pertinent literature citations. The table of contents and individual chapter abstracts can be viewed at http://rd.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-94-007-1957-6/page/1
Developed by the Taiwan EPA, U.S. Geological Survey, and U.S. EPA, this workshop provides scientific, engineering, and regulatory information designed to help regulators and practitioners conduct site remediation using phytotechnologies in a variety of applications. The workshop presentations also illuminate the advantages and limitations, highlight the phytotechnologies that are ready for application, and indicate the areas that are still in research. The workshop components consist of an introduction to the science, case studies, hands-on group exercises, and an open discussion of the regulatory issues regarding application of phytotechnologies based on the 2009 ITRC Phytotechnology Technical and Regulatory Guidance and Decision Trees, Revised (www.itrcweb.org/Documents/PHYTO-3.pdf
Waste Management Association of Australia, REF No. 20100260RA3F, 90 pp, Oct 2011
The Waste Management Association of Australia has produced these guidelines as part of its Australian Alternative Cover Assessment Program (A-ACAP). The objective of this document is to provide guidance for landfill stakeholders on the applicability, design, construction, and maintenance of phytocaps in Australia based on the research findings and field data from the five Australian A-ACAP sites and published literature. It also summarizes the current criteria used by Australian regulators that are relevant to the design of alternative cover systems. www.wmaa.asn.au/uploads/documents/WMAA_AACAP_final2.pdf
Dioxin 20XX is a non-profit organization founded by the International Advisory Board of the International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) to promote scientific education and research on POPs. Dioxin20XX facilitates the organization of the annual international dioxin symposium and publishes Organohalogen Compounds. The international dioxin symposium provides an open public forum for presentations of cutting-edge scientific research on POPs across all disciplines, including analytical and environmental chemistry, molecular biology, human health, risk assessment, and risk management. The Organohalogen Compounds Database maintained at this website contains all short papers presented at the annual dioxin symposia since 1990; the database is searchable and publicly accessible without a password. http://www.dioxin20xx.org/ohc_database_search.htm
Research into the process of acid rock drainage (ARD) formation and methods to minimize its impact has been conducted for over 50 years. A considerable volume of scientific and engineering guidance is available on ARD, but the research is in disparate references, not easily accessible, and tends to be issue, commodity, or geographically centric. INAP and the Global Alliance have undertaken to consolidate the information and produce an up-to-date guide that will be global in scope—a practical reference on best practice rather than a literature or research summary. The Global Acid Rock Drainage Guide (the GARD guide) was created through the contributions of many individuals and organizations. A team lead by Golder Associates prepared the initial draft. The GARD Guide is a technical document designed primarily for a scientist or engineer with a reasonable background in chemistry and the basics of engineering, with little specific knowledge of ARD. The principal user will typically be an employee of the mining industry, regulatory agency, research organization, non-governmental organization, or consulting company. A compendium of the concepts, techniques, and processes, the GARD Guide has been prepared as a road map through the process of evaluating, planning, design, and management of ARD over the lifecycle of mining. It provides a broad but not highly detailed understanding of ARD technologies and management. The guide also gives references to identify more detailed information on ARD for those looking for specifics on ARD technologies and approaches. Initiated in 2009, the GARD Guide is still a work in progress. The GARD website provides for reader input, and comments are welcome. http://www.gardguide.com/index.php/Main_Page
CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, Australia: CRC CARE Technical Report No. 20, 53 pp, Mar 2012
Successful implementation of a revegetation system in an area affected by metals (e.g., a mining site) requires a true multi-disciplinary effort, with collaboration between soil scientists, agronomists, hydrologists, ecotoxicologists, and economists. The overall revegetation process can be separated into three broad steps: (1) assessment of soil contamination; (2) remediation; and (3) revegetation/plant selection. Although all three steps are considered in this report, emphasis is placed on the first and last steps. This document provides a brief review of current knowledge, with a particular emphasis on Australian plants and landscapes. http://www.crccare.com/publications/downloads/CRC-CARE-Tech-Report-20.pd
CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, Australia: CRC CARE Technical Report No. 21, 32 pp, Apr 2012
The biota of an ecosystem consist of two major components: the microbes (including bacteria and fungi), and the larger, mostly crustacean macro- and meiofauna (stygofauna). Accordingly, groundwater ecosystems are very different from surface water ecosystems and so require different strategies for their biological assessment. Sampling of stygofauna generally is conducted by means of pumps, nets, or traps, with the choice of method often having little impact on the variety of animals collected but some influence on abundance. The authors recommend sampling multiple bores on multiple occasions at a location for adequate assessment of stygofauna diversity. Field experience indicates that samples from multiple bores on a single occasion, or from a single bore on multiple occasions, will not assess stygofauna diversity adequately: at least five sampling locations and five sampling events may be required. Microbial assemblages can be assessed by a variety of means including molecular or metabolic fingerprinting, direct measurement of biomass, and microbial enzyme activity. Irrespective of the method chosen, repeat temporal and spatial sampling should be undertaken. While measures of microbial activity at relatively undisturbed sites may be variable over time, the effects of disturbance to an aquifer can cause a large and readily detectable shift in microbial activity, greatly exceeding the spatial and temporal variability among undisturbed sites. Assessments of aquifer ecosystems in the context of environmental impact assessment call for examination of both microbes and stygofauna, reflecting the major biotic components of the ecosystem. Multiple samples over space and time are necessary, with the exact level of replication and sampling effort ideally determined by site-specific studies. http://www.crccare.com/publications/downloads/Tech-Report-21.pdf
Bentham Science Publishers, Ltd. eISBN: 978-1-60805-121-2, 281 pp, 2011
The papers in this open-access text offer comprehensive coverage of chemical fate and effects in terrestrial and aquatic environments. The editors have brought together international input from experts for systematic coverage of this complex topic, from the source of organic and metal compounds, to their fate and impacts on land and in freshwater and marine ecosystems. The first two chapters introduce the theme of the book, covering the sources and mode of action of environmental contaminants and the toxicity of various common pollutant categories: mining wastes, sewage, and industrial and metropolitan discharges. The transport and fate of metal and organic pollutants in the environment is described from a modeler's perspective. The processes governing the movement of chemicals between air, land, and water are described, along with biological transformations, including degradation and bioaccumulation, which are essential to risk management. The following three chapters deal with terrestrial ecosystems. Chapter 3 explains how naturally occurring metals and metalloids can become contaminants when they bioaccumulate and result in sublethal to lethal effects on populations and food chains. The key metals of toxicological concern include arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Application of agricultural pesticides (fungicides, insecticides and herbicides) can have a range of unintended adverse effects on non-target biota. Chapter 5 explores the forest industry's use of pesticides (herbicides and insecticides), with case examples of lab to field studies in risks attendant upon pest management. The final six chapters address the many issues of chemicals in marine and freshwater environments. All the chapters in full text are freely available at http://www.benthamscience.com/ebooks/contents.php?JCode=9781608051212
The Cluster methodology is designed to offer an alternative way of remediating multiple sites that are located in relatively close proximity and share a decontamination or treatment facility located on a single site—the Hub site. Cluster projects are temporary and operate only as long as the sites defined within the Cluster are being remediated or developed. They are also demonstrably appropriate for grouping in terms of geographical distance, relative savings, and practical issues for each of the participating sites. The Cluster methodology follows a different strategy than traditional standalone projects and can provide a more economical and sustainable approach. The guide identifies the key planning considerations required to set up a cluster project but should not be seen as a step-by-step guide to establishing and operating the project. CL:AIRE participants have completed a full-scale commercial cluster project involving four former gasworks in Northwest England. The methodology delivered economies of scale and savings that surpassed expectations and enabled the treatment and reuse of contaminated soil that that ordinarily would have been sent to landfill. Local stakeholders supported operation of the treatment hub and helped to answer questions related to planning: Which sites to include? How to engage the planning authorities? How to put workable contractual arrangements in place? CL:AIRE has compiled the lessons learned to share with the wider environmental sector. http://www.claire.co.uk/index.php?option=com_phocadownload&view=file&id=
EPA has prepared this white paper to present scientific information published since the National Research Council released the 2005 Report, Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion. The white paper explains how EPA derived a range of maximum contaminant level goal values (MCLG) for life stages of concern. The purpose of the paper is to seek guidance from the Science Advisory Board on how best to consider and interpret the life-stage information and epidemiologic and biomonitoring data that have appeared since the NRC Report, physiologically based pharmacokinetic analyses, and the totality of perchlorate health information to derive an MCLG for perchlorate. http://yosemite.epa.gov/sab/sabproduct.nsf/0/D3BB75D4297CA46985257943005
The Network for Industrially Contaminated Land in Europe (NICOLE) launched its 2012 Technology Award on "Innovative Solutions for Soil Monitoring" with the aim to stimulate engineers and scientists to submit technical innovations that can contribute to improved practice for contaminated land monitoring and verification of remediation performance. The three winning entries received their awards on 14 June 2012 at NICOLE's workshop in Baden-Baden, Germany. Entries were judged by a NICOLE jury based on their innovation, potential contribution to cost savings, technical applicability, and plans for communication and commercialization/market availability.
• The 2012 Award was won by a project funded by the French Agency of Environment and Energy Management, "Pollution Investigation by Trees (PIT)." PIT is an international research project led by Environment International with HPC Envirotec, Seveque Environnement, Cabinet Conseil Blondel, Exponent, and Triassic Technology. Trees can act as proxy recorders of their current and past environmental exposures. Phytoforensic methods allow plume delineation and mapping as well as age dating of past pollution events. The project expanded upon the use of phytoscreening and dendrochemical applications at polluted sites. http://www.nicole.org/news/downloads/No.%201%20-%20PIT.pdf
• Second prize was awarded to the company Berghof (Tuebingen) and the University of Stuttgart (VEGAS) in Germany for the Thermo-Flowmeter System. This system is designed to detect vertical flow in groundwater observation wells and to measure profiles of the hydraulic conductivity in aquifers. http://www.nicole.org/news/downloads/No.%202%20-%20Thermo%20Flow%20Meter
• Third prize was awarded to VITO and partners for a site- and receptor-specific risk management approach for groundwater pollution, the contaminant mass flux approach, which uses in situ measurements of contaminant mass flux from the recently developed passive flux meter technology. http://www.nicole.org/news/downloads/No.%203%20-%20CMF%20approach.pdf
Further details on the winning technologies are provided at the bottom of the news release at http://www.nicole.org/news/DisplayNewsItem.asp?NewsID=815&Listing=1
The goals of the 2012 Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) Annual Meeting were to (1) provide opportunities to share research results and promote interactions among the SBR-funded scientists and other invited guests; (2) evaluate informally the progress of each SBR-funded program or project; (3) showcase the scientific expertise and research progress over the past year to senior managers within the DOE Office of Science, the technology offices within DOE, and other invited attendees from other federal agencies; and (4) start a dialogue with the scientific community on future biogeochemical challenges for the BER and DOE mission areas. Because of a significant reduction in the appropriated versus proposed funding for fiscal year 2012 for the SBR program, and because outyear funding for the SBR program is expected to remain flat at the FY 2012 level, SBR program managers have significantly restructured all components of the SBR program. The scope of these changes is presented. Future directions for the SBR program are presented in the context of a new strategic plan for the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) and a closer integration with CESD's Terrestrial Ecosystem Science program while maintaining close connections with BER's Genomic Science program. http://doesbr.org/PImeetings/2012/2012SBRbooklr.pdf
EPA 542-R-12-001, 46 pp, 2012
This document provides a general outline of the steps in the investigation and cleanup of brownfields sites and introduces brownfields stakeholders to the range of technologies and resources available to them. The Road Map provides valuable information for stakeholders typically involved in or affected by redevelopment of brownfields sites, whether through public projects, private development, or public-private partnerships. This edition incorporates a new approach to the Road Map through a streamlined publication and a companion website of technical resources and tools. Readers can use the printed publication to learn about the general phases of the site investigation and cleanup process and gain an understanding of the considerations associated with typical brownfields sites. The Road Map website complements the publication by providing direct access to technical resources and tools that provide details about technology applications, methods and other site-specific concerns. View the full content of the Brownfields Road Map online at www.brownfieldstsc.org/roadmap
Central Europe Programme, FOKS (Focus on Key Sources of Environmental Risks), 70 pp, 2011
The MAGIC (management of groundwater at industrially contaminated areas) approach is considered particularly suitable for areas with diverse sources of pollution that form distinctive contaminant plumes in groundwater. It takes into account that contaminant plumes coming from several sources of can merge or lie atop one another. Decades of experience show that in complex cases, only an integral approach ensures effective and well-targeted activities and enables identification of all groundwater-relevant sources and their contribution to the overall contamination problem. This manual comprises two parts. Part one describes integral groundwater risk management—an innovative, effective, and well-targeted approach for the investigation of complex groundwater pollution. Part two discusses uses of technology (including measurement of mass flux) in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of an integral groundwater investigation. Integral pumping tests are the central element of the integral groundwater investigation. These tests are a powerful measure to investigate source-plume interactions in groundwater. They are the basis for the assessment of the actual impact of a contaminant source on the groundwater. http://www.projectfoks.eu/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/foks_toolbox_handbo
See also the MAGIC Handbook at http://www.stuttgart.de/en/item/show/404472/1/publ/19012
The National Environmental Monitoring Conference (NEMC) is the largest conference focused on environmental measurements in North America. The conference brings together scientists and managers from federal and state agencies, the regulated community, academia, and laboratory and engineering support communities. NEMC features presentations, posters, training, exhibits, and networking opportunities. Since 2006, NEMC has been co-sponsored by the NELAC Institute under a cooperative agreement with U.S. EPA. The technical program is organized by a committee of environmental experts from government, academia, and private industry. Over 100 posters and slide presentations from the 2011 Environmental Measurement Symposium (held August 15-18) are available online. Topics included methods for analyzing and monitoring air (including vapor intrusion), drinking water, contaminated sediments, and hexavalent chromium and other metallic species and organometallics. Special sessions included (1) Environmental Monitoring Needs Following Environmental Disasters, (2) Operational and Advocacy Issues Impacting the Environmental Laboratory Industry, (3) Innovative and Emerging Technologies for Environmental Contaminants, and (4) Establishing a Geochemical Baseline for North American Soils. http://www.nemc.us/program-2011.php
EPA-SAB-12-005, 63 pp, Feb 2012
EPA is currently reviewing its regulations that establish environmental protection standards for uranium and thorium mill tailings (40 CFR Part 192) to determine if revisions are necessary in light of current mining practices. The standards are promulgated by EPA under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), or the NRC Agreement State in which the mine is located, issues and oversees the mine operating licenses. The original UMTRCA regulations written in 1983 and revised in 1995 focused on surface and underground mining of uranium, the prevalent methods of uranium extraction at that time. Currently, in situ leaching (ISL) is a common method of uranium extraction. Because ISL operations involve injection of uranium extraction fluids into subsurface ore bodies, EPA is considering establishing standards applicable to groundwater monitoring systems at and around ISL facilities. EPA's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air has prepared a draft technical report, Considerations Related to Post-Closure Monitoring of Uranium In-Situ Leach/In-Situ Recovery (ISL/ISR) Sites, dated June 2011. The draft technical report provides background information concerning the objectives, design, and implementation of groundwater monitoring systems for ISL/ISR operations. Monitoring wells positioned outside the production area are used to detect excursions of leach solution from the production area during the operational phase. Monitoring wells within the production area are used pre-operationally to establish baseline conditions and post-operationally to determine when physical and chemical conditions in groundwater have been restored and stabilized. Part 1 of the EPA draft technical report presents the overall approach, including the regulatory context for EPA's standards under UMTRCA. Part 2 provides details on specific issues associated with the approach, including monitoring at existing ISL facilities, establishing post-operational steady state, performing statistical analyses to compare pre- and post-operational conditions, and describing encountered post-closure performance issues. As requested by EPA, the Science Advisory Board herein provides feedback on the draft technical report. http://yosemite.epa.gov/sab/sabproduct.nsf/0/964968d9229863a0852579a7006
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