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Technology Assessment Branch
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Nanotechnology: Applications for Environmental Remediation
Jump to a SubsectionOrganizations Working with Nanotechnology | Publications | Nanotechnology Databases
Organizations Working with Nanotechnology
- California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI)
One of the University of California Los Angeles' (UCLA) research centers, CNSI's goal is to bring together academia with industry and support rapid commercialization of nanotechnology discoveries
- Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (CAMN)
Located at Lehigh University, CAMN's mission is to identify, promote, and engage in the research and education of advanced materials and nanotechnology in order to meet industrial, governmental, and education needs through: interdisciplinary collaboration; productive partnerships; dedicated expertise; accessible leading edge facilities; and innovative education programs.
- Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology (CBEN) at Rice University
CBEN is a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center (NSEC) at Rice University. Aiming to transform nanoscience into a field with the impact of a modern-day polymer science, CBEN focuses on researching nanoscale materials, developing the nanoscience workforce of the future, and transferring discoveries to industry.
Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology (CEINT)
CEINT is a collaboration of Duke University, Virginia Tech, Carnegie Mellon University and Howard University as well as investigators from the University of Kentucky and Stanford University. CEINT was formed to perform research on nanoscale materials in order to identify the biological effects and ecological consequences of natural, incidental, and engineered nanoscale materials.
- National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) is the former Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES). Congress created CSREES through the 1994 Department Reorganization Act. Through that act, the former Cooperative State Research Service (CSRS) and the former Extension Service (ES) two unique USDA agencies were combined into a single service within the USDA. This move united the research, education, and extension portfolios of both former services and consolidated their expertise and resources under one leadership structure. CSREES' involvement in nanotechnology includes four grant programs that fund nanotechnology research projects. CSREES also participates as a USDA and agency representative on the Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology Subcommittee of the White House National Science and Technology Council and as a member organization in the National Nanotechnology Initiative.
Environmental Law Institute: Nanotechnology Initiative
The Environmental Law Institute's Nanotechnology Initiative seeks to respond to the urgent need to develop an effective environmental, health, and safety governance structure for nanotechnologies.
EPA National Center for Environmental Research (NCER): Nanotechnology
NCER is one of seven research organizations that comprise EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD). NCER's mission is to support high-quality research by the nation's leading scientists and engineers that will improve the scientific basis for national environmental decisions. This site highlights EPA research in nanotechnology and provides useful information on related research at EPA and in other organizations.
- EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER): Nanotechnology for Waste and Cleanup
OSWER provides policy, guidance and direction for the Agency's solid waste and emergency response programs. This site provides information on the unique issues associated with nanotechnology in waste and cleanup, including basic information, events, and related links.
- EPA ORD National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL)
EPA ORD performs research that helps EPA make decisions on environmental policies and programs. NRMRL is the ORD laboratory responsible for researching risk management (which includes remediation technologies). The NRMRL website provides information on nanotechnology including the podcast "Nanotechnology: Getting Small".
- International Council of Nanotechnology (ICON)
ICON is an international, multi-stakeholder organization whose mission is to assess, communicate, and reduce the environmental and health risks of nanotechnology while maximizing its societal benefit.
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH): Nanotechnology
A number of active research programs within NIOSH are investigating ultrafine and nanoscale material behavior and the potential health risks associated with nanoscale materials. A NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center is being developed that will coordinate institute-wide nanotechnology-related activities.
- National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Research and services at NIST aim to ensure that the nascent nanotechnology revolution will blossom in the U.S. NIST focuses on building the supporting technical capabilities that U.S. industry needs to master the exceptionally small and build a competitive advantage in the growing international markets for nanotech products.
- The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI)
NNI is a federal research and development program established to coordinate the multiagency efforts in nanoscale science, engineering, and technology. NNI facilitates communication, collaboration, and cooperation among participating federal agencies to advance the field of nanotechnology.
- National Science Foundation Nanotechnology
The NSF was created by Congress in 1950 "to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense..." This NSF website contains NSF and NNI reports on nanotechnology.
- Navy Research Laboratory Institute for Nanoscience
The mission of the Navy's Institute for Nanoscience is to conduct highly innovative, interdisciplinary research at the intersections of the fields of materials, electronics, and biology in the nanometer size domain.
- U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science: DOE Nanoscale Science Research Centers
The DOE Office of Science developed five Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) to support synthesis, processing, fabrication and analysis at the nanoscale. Each center focused on a different area of nanoscale research, such as materials derived from or inspired by nature; hard and crystalline materials, including the structure of macromolecules; magnetic and soft materials, including polymers and ordered structures in fluids; and nanotechnology integration.
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Nanotechnology
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates a wide range of products, including foods, cosmetics, drugs, devices, and veterinary products, some of which may use nanotechnology or contain nanoscale materials. This website includes access to the FDA Nanotechnology Task Force which is responsible for identifying regulatory approaches that encourage the continued development of innovative, safe, and effective FDA-regulated products that use nanotechnology materials.
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars: Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies
The Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies was established in April 2005 as a partnership between the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Pew Charitable Trusts. The project is dedicated to helping ensure that, as nanotechnologies advance, possible risks are minimized, public and consumer engagement remains strong, and the potential benefits of these new technologies are realized.
- State-of-the-Science Report on Predictive Models and Modeling Approaches for Characterizing and Evaluating Exposure to Nanomaterials
This review of published and gray literature was undertaken to identify fate and transport models and alternative modeling approaches that could be used to predict exposure to engineered nanomaterials released into the environment, specifically for aquatic systems.
- Cost and Performance Report: Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Technologies for Source Remediation
This cost and performance report was published by the U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center. It is a compilation of technical and performance data from three recent Navy demonstration projects involving the use of microscale or nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for treatment of dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones. The Navy conducted considerable performance monitoring at the three sites, and the results are summarized in this report.
- Emerging Challenges: Nanotechnology and the Environment
Nanotechnology promises to transform sectors as diverse as medicine, manufacturing, energy, water supply, and transportation. Public and private sectors, particularly in developed countries and economies in transition, are invested heavily in research and applications. By 2014, nanotechnology is projected to have 14 percent or $2.6 trillion (U.S. Dollar) of the global manufacturing market. However, a number of issues and challenges are associated with nanotechnology. This document looks at various aspects of nanotechnology topics, including: (1) the potential impacts of nanotechnology on the environment and human health, (2) current regulatory frameworks and whether they deal adequately with the special challenges posed by these "smart" particles, (3) policy issues related to developing and extending science-based risk frameworks, and (4) how best to address transboundary issues on the development and deployment of nanoscale materials and products.
Emerging Nanotechnologies for Site Remediation and Wastewater Treatment
This document was prepared by Katherine Watlington, a National Network of Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) grantee, under a fellowship from the EPA. This paper seeks to provide a holistic view of the state of the science of nanotechnology. Both commercialized nanotechnology products and many of the technologies being researched in academia are discussed. Attention is given both to general research and remediation capabilities. Toxicity and safety concerns associated with individual technologies are also outlined, as are the overall toxicity concerns related more generally to the field of nanotechnology. Finally, the current state of regulation is addressed.
- EPA Nanotechnology White Paper
In December 2004, EPA's Science Policy Council created a cross-agency workgroup charged with describing key science issues EPA should consider to ensure that society enjoys the important benefits to environmental protection that nanotechnology may offer, as well as to better understand any potential risks from exposure to nanoscale materials in the environment. This paper is the product of that workgroup. This white paper informs EPA management of the science issues and needs associated with nanotechnology, to support related EPA program office needs, and to communicate these nanotechnology science issues to stakeholders and the public.
- Nanomaterial Research Strategy
In June 2009, EPA ORD published the Nanomaterial Research Strategy (NRS) to act as a guide for nanotechnology research within ORD. The NRS centers around progressing EPA's understanding of nanomaterials for decision support and focuses on four research themes:
- Identifying sources, fate, transport, and exposure
- Understanding human health and ecological research to inform risk assessment and test methods
- Developing risk assessment approaches
- Preventing and mitigating risks (U.S. EPA 2009).
- Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen
EPA ORD prepared this document which discusses two case studies of nanoscale TiO2 applications: (1) as an agent to remove arsenic from drinking water, and (2) as an active ingredient in topical sunscreen. The document defines the information that could be used to perform a comprehensive environmental assessment of the potential risks associated with nanoscale TiO2.
- Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet
This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites. The fact sheet also identifies contacts, such as vendors or project managers with field experience, to facilitate networking.
- Capstone Report on the Application, Monitoring, and Performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Ground-Water Remediation: Volume 1 Performance Evaluations at Two Sites
Zero-valent iron permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) were used at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center located near Elizabeth City, North Carolina, and the Denver Federal Center in Lakewood, Colorado. This study discusses the geochemical and microbiological processes that took place within the PRBs and how they contributed to iron reactivity and reaction zone permeability.
- An In-Situ Permeable Reactive Barrier for the Treatment of Hexavalent Chromium and Trichloroethylene in Ground Water
A PRB was installed at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center, near Elizabeth City, North Carolina, in June 1996. The PRB was designed to treat groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and trichloroethylene (TCE). This document discusses the modeling of the groundwater treatment using the multicomponent reactive transport model, MIN3P.
- Utilization of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron for Source Remediation—A Case Study
This report discusses a pilot-scale study of volatile organic compound (VOC) treatment using palladium-catalyzed and polymer-coated nanoscale zero-valent iron (ZVI) particle suspension. This study, which took place at the Naval Air Station in Jacksonville, Florida, showed that nanoscale ZVI effectively degraded contamination and reduced the mass flux from the source.
- Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR) Remediation Technology Assessment Reports
- Evaluation of Amendments for mending the ISRM Barrier (2004)
This Department of Energy study evaluates chemical and biological amendments to improve the performance of the in situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Barrier at the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site in Washington. The reactive ISRM barrier was installed between 1999 and 2003 to treat a plume of Hexavalent chromium in the groundwater. Performance of the barrier declined causing elevated chromium concentrations in groundwater. The amendments evaluated to mend the barrier and restore its effectiveness include dithionite, calcium polysulfide, micron-scale iron, nanoscale iron, dissolved iron, and biostimulants. The amendments were evaluated using several criteria, including effectiveness, implementability, maintenance (longevity), safety, regulatory acceptance, and cost.
- Treatment Technologies For Mercury in Soil, Waste, and Water
This report contains information on the availability, performance, and cost of eight technologies for the treatment of mercury in soil, waste, and water. It describes the theory, design, and operation of the technologies; provides information on commercial availability and use; and includes site-specific data on performance and cost, where available. This information can help managers at sites with mercury-contaminated media and generators of mercury-contaminated waste and wastewater to: Identify proven and effective mercury treatment technologies; Screen technologies based on application-specific goals, characteristics, and cost; and Apply experiences from sites with similar treatment challenges. The technologies for soil and waste that are included in the report are solidification and stabilization, soil washing and acid extraction, thermal treatment, and vitrification. Technologies for water include precipitation/coprecipitation, adsorption, membrane filtration, and biological treatment. The report also includes information on ongoing research on mercury treatment, including applications using nanotechnology, phytoremediation, air stripping, and in situ thermal desorption.
- Evaluation of Amendments for mending the ISRM Barrier (2004)
- FRTR Cost and Performance Case Studies
- Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Technology for Source Remediation
This cost and performance report discusses the use of nZVI at two locations: Naval Air Station Jacksonville, and Naval Air Engineering Station Lakehurst and microscale zero-valent iron at the Hunters Point Shipyard, San Francisco, CA.
- In Situ Bimetallic Nanoscale Particle (BNP) Treatment at the Naval Air Engineering Station Site (Area I), Lakehurst, New Jersey
This cost and performance report discusses a field demonstration at the Naval Air Engineering Station in Lakehurst, New Jersey that used bimetallic nanoparticles for a remediation technology.
- Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Technology for Source Remediation
- Nanoparticles: Health Effects - Pros and Cons
This document was prepared by Maureen R. Gwinn and Val Vallyathan with NIOSH in Morgantown, West Virginia. The paper seeks to provide possible human health effects associated with exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) in the belief that human health effects from exposure to engineering nanoparticles will be similar.
- Technical Support Times, Spring 2008, Issue #6
This on-line newsletter is provided by EPA's Superfund & Technology Liaison (STL) Program of the Office of Science Policy (OSP) within ORD. Environmental applications and implications from nanoparticles are discussed in the newsletter, along with EPA's view of nanotechnology, the role STL plays, research grants provided to support the emerging nanotechnology field, and EPA regulatory issues associated with the field.
- Emerging Contaminants - Nanomaterials Factsheet
EPA's Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office developed this factsheet to provide information on nanomaterials as an emerging contaminant. The factsheet discusses the physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials, potential health and environmental impacts, detection and treatment methods, and existing state and federal guidelines.
- Nanotechnology and in Situ Remediation: A Review of the Benefits and Potential Risks
This document presents a background and overview of the use of nanoscale materials in environmental cleanup. Various aspects of nanoremediation are discussed including research findings, societal issues, and the future of the technology.
- Assessing the Use and Application of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticle Technology for Remediation at Contaminated Sites
This document was prepared by Sean M. Cook, a NNEMS grantee under a fellowship from the EPA. The main focus of this paper is discussing the use of zero-valent iron nanoparticles. Due to its unique properties, this manufactured nanoparticle is able to effectively eliminate or neutralize certain recalcitrant pollutants that can be found in aquatic environments (e.g., groundwater aquifers). nZVI particles are typically 5-40 nm sized Fe0/Fe-oxide particles that rapidly transform many environmental contaminants to benign products and are a promising in Situ remediation agent. Due to their small size and increased reactivity, these manufactured nanoparticles have the potential to be more effective than the microscale ZVI that is already in use for contaminant remediation in soil and groundwater aquifers. However, little is known about the environmental fate of these nanomaterials once they have undergone biological and non-biological processes within a contaminated aquifer. For this reason, it is important to find out what the possible impacts of these nanomaterials are once they enter the environment and how they could potentially affect human health or the environment. Despite these concerns, nZVI technology and its application are a very promising, efficient and cost-effective method for remediating contaminated soil and groundwater aquifer sites.
- Fate, Transport, and Toxicity of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) Used During Superfund Remediation
This document was prepared by Emily Keane, a NNEMS grantee under a fellowship from the EPA. The goal of this document is to provide information about the fate, transport, and toxicity associated with the use of nZVI for Superfund remediation. Specific and unique site conditions are likely to determine the usefulness and influence the fate and transport of nZVI particles during remediation efforts. Factors to consider prior to application include: effects of geochemistry on the mobility of nanoparticles, use of metal catalysts and coatings on the movement of nZVI particles and other variables affecting the fate and transport of nZVI in the environment. Other considerations include potential environmental and human health effects as a result of the fate and transport of nZVI in the environment.
- Potential Nano-Enabled Environmental Applications for Radionuclides
The application of nanotechnology or nano-enabled processes for the remediation of radionuclides hasn't been developed as much as the use of nanoscale materials for other contaminants. In this report, the development of nanotechnology applications for remediation of radionuclides and heavy metals are divided into two areas: new remediation methods and advancements in sensors. Though developments in these fields still remain in their early stages, this report describes some of the more promising remediation nanotechnologies and new sensors, and attempts to extrapolate general developments in nanotechnologies to advances in radionuclide remediation and monitoring.
- Multifunctional Colloidal Particles for in Situ Remediation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
The remediation of dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) can take place via in Situ injection technology however the process requires the use of decontamination agents that effectively migrate through the soil media and react efficiently with the contamination. This article describes the use of a decontamination system containing highly uniform carbon microspheres that are enveloped in a polyelectrolyte to which a bimetallic nanoparticle system of zero-valent iron and Pd is attached. The multifunctional systems appear to satisfy criteria related to remediation and are made with potentially environmentally benign materials.
- Degradation of Trichloroethylene (TCE) by Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) Immobilized in Alginate Bead
Nowadays, many researchers have studied the environmental application of the nZVI and several field applications for the groundwater remediation have been reported. Still, there are many concerns on the fate and transport of the nZVI and the corresponding risks. To avoid such concerns, the investigator immobilized nZVI in a support and then it was applied to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE). The nZVI and palladium-doped nZVI (Fe(0)- and Fe/Pd-alginate) were immobilized in the alginate bead where ferric and barium ions are used as the cross-linking cations of the bead. According to TEM (transmission electron microscopy), the size of the immobilized ZVI was as small as a few nanometers. From the surface analysis of the Fe/Pd-alginate, it is found that the immobilized nZVI has the core-shell structure. The core is composed of single crystal Fe(0), while most of irons on the surface are oxidized to Fe(3+). When 50 g/L of Fe/Pd-alginate (3.7 g Fe/L) was introduced to the aqueous solution, >99.8% of TCE was removed and the release of metal from the support was <3% of the loaded iron. The removal of TCE by Fe/Pd-alginate followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The observed pseudo-first-order reaction constant (k(obs)) of Fe/Pd-alginate was 6.11 h(-1) and the mass normalized rate constant (k(m)) was 1.6 L h(-1) g(-1). The k(m) is the same order of magnitude with that of iron nanoparticles. In conclusion, it is considered that Fe/Pd-alginate can be used efficiently in the treatment of chlorinated solvent.
- Entrapment of Iron Nanoparticles in Calcium Alginate Beads for Groundwater Remediation Applications
nZVI has been successfully entrapped in biopolymer, calcium (Ca)-alginate beads. The study has demonstrated the potential use of this technique in environmental remediation using nitrate as a model contaminant. Ca-alginate beads show promise as an entrapment medium for nZVI for possible use in groundwater remediation. Based on scanning electron microscopy images it can be inferred that the alginate gel cluster acts as a bridge that binds the nZVI particles together. Kinetic experiments with 100, 60, and 20mg NO3--N L-1 indicate that 50–73% nitrate-N removal was achieved with entrapped nZVI as compared to 55–73% with bare nZVI over a 2-hour period. The controls, which ran simultaneously, show little NO3--N removal. Statistical analysis indicates that there was no significant difference between the reaction rates of bare and entrapped nZVI. The authors have shown that nZVI can be effectively entrapped in Ca-alginate beads and no significant decrease in the reactivity of nZVI toward the model contaminant (nitrate, in this case) was observed after the entrapment.
- Emulsified Zero-Valent Nano-Scale Iron Treatment of Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL Source Areas (ESTCP Project ER-0431)
Geosyntec Consultants Inc. (Geosyntec) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a technology demonstration program at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island, South Carolina. The effort evaluated the use of EZVI to remediate chlorinated solvent DNAPL source zones. The demonstration evaluated degradation taking place due to abiotic and biological components and measured the effectiveness of EZVI at a larger scale to obtain accurate full-scale cost and design information.
- Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer
Developed by the Congressional Research Service, this primer provides an overview of nanotechnology, the National Nanotechnology Initiative, the competitiveness of the United States within the nanotechnology field, and other considerations of nanotechnology use.
- Screening Methods for Metal-Containing Nanoparticles in Water: APM 32
EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (Las Vegas) prepared this report to show how screening-level analysis of water for metal-containing nanoparticles can be achieved with single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICPMS). The method measures both the concentration of nanoparticles containing an analyte metal and the mass of the metal in each particle. SP-ICPMS is capable of sample throughputs of over 20 samples per hour. In this report, the screening capability of SP-ICPMS is demonstrated in a study of transformations of silver nanoparticles in surface water.
- A Risk/Benefit Approach to the Application of Iron Nanoparticles for the Remediation of Contaminated Sites in the Environment
Iron nanoparticles (NPs) are highly reactive reducing agents and as such degrade organic compounds and change the oxidation state of elements. A concern in the UK is that unreacted iron NPs can spread from the treatment zones and cause harm to human health or the environment. The available information suggests that iron NPs have relatively short lifetimes in the environment before they are inactivated (~6 months as a maximum) and migrate relatively short distances (100 meters) from injection points. The field-scale evidence base is limited and potentially unreliable, however, and the literature offers a range of opinions about reputed iron NP impacts in the field. The available evidence can support a range of interpretations about the potential risks from iron NP use in soil and groundwater remediation, some of which differ from those reached in this 2011 report for the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Appendix 2 contains 3 case studies of iron nanoparticle field application.
- Nano Titanium Dioxide Environmental Matters: State of the Science Literature Review
This report contains compiled and summarized information available through early 2010 pertaining to the manufacturing, processing, use, and end-of-life for nanoscale TiO(2). The focus of the report is to identify, summarize, and present information, rather than to perform a critical evaluation of the results. The intent is to provide this information to the scientific community to support exposure assessment and evaluation of the human health and toxicity of nano-TiO(2) throughout its life cycle as it is manufactured and introduced into the domestic marketplace and then into the environment.
- Everything Nanosilver and More: State-of-the-Science Review
Nanosilver is used in an increasing number of consumer and medical products owing to its remarkably strong antimicrobial activity. This review of literature available through early 2010 examines commercial uses of silver nanomaterials, nanosilver sysnthesis and properties, and the potential for environmental exposure and toxic health effects.
- The International Council on Nanotechnology (ICON) Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) database
The EHS database, created by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and maintained by ICON at Rice University, contains summaries and citations of research papers that relate to the environmental health and safety aspect of nanoscale materials.
- The Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (PEN) databases
The PEN website provides access to numerous databases which capture various aspects related to the nanotechnology arena. One of the databases is the Environment, Health, and Safety Research (http://www.nanotechproject.org/inventories/ehs/) database that includes international government-funded research of nanotechnology as it relates to the safety of humans and the environment.
- Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
The OECD database contains research projects that discuss the impacts of manufactured nanomaterials on the environment, human health and safety. This database builds on the PEN Environment, Health and Safety Research database.
- EPA's Technology Innovation Program Clean-Up Information (CLU-IN) Nanoparticles for Site Remediation Database
The Nanoparticles for Site Remediation database contains information on sites that are testing or implementing the use of nanoscale materials for environmental remediation.
- TOXNET, Toxicology Data Network
The Division of Specialized Information Services within the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), on the campus of the National Institutes of Health, produces TOXNET, a searchable collection of toxicology and environmental health databases. By entering a keyword into the "Search All Databases" field, such as iron nanoparticles, TOXNET generates a list of databases and the number of references available within each database for that keyword.
- The nano4water cluster
The nano4water cluster is a collection of research projects that which were funded by the European Commission. Research projects listed at nano4water support the research and development of using nano-engineered materials in the field of water treatment.