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Applicability of Monitored Natural Attenuation Radioactively Contaminated Sites
IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 445, STI/DOC/010/445, 105 pp, 2006
This report discusses in detail the necessary prerequisites, processes involved, applicability, and limits of MNA as a strategy for dealing with radioactive contamination in the subsurface. The text covers migration and retention mechanisms, the geochemistry of selected radionuclides, data availability and uncertainty, and modeling approaches for assessing MNA potential. Radionuclide geochemistry is described for uranium, neptunium, technetium, cesium, strontium, thorium, radium, and lead.
An Approach for Evaluating the Progress of Natural Attenuation in Groundwater
EPA 600-R-11-204, 2011
The purpose of this document is to present a simple, statistically based approach for evaluating the progress of natural attenuation from the data collected during site characterization and long term monitoring. The intended audience is technical professionals that actually perform the data analyses (i.e., hydrogeologists, engineers) as well as project managers who review those analyses and/or make decisions based on those analyses.
Aqueous and Mineral Intrinsic Bioremediation Assessment (AMIBA) Protocol (Draft)
2000. Kennedy, L.; J. Everett; J. Gonzales, HQ AFCEE/ER, 286 pp.
Calculation and Use of First-Order Rate Constants for Monitored Natural Attenuation Studies. Ground Water Issue
2002. C.J. Newell, et al. EPA 540-S-02-500, 28 pp.
Characterization and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water: A Systems Approach, Revision 1
Tyler Gilmore (PNNL); B.B. Looney (SRNL); et al.
WSRC-STI-2006-00084, 65 pp, Aug 2006
These pages were developed through a partnership among the U.S. EPA, Air Force, Army, Navy, and Coast Guard. Both chlorinated solvent spills and petroleum-contaminated sites are addressed.
Compatibility of Alternative Chlorinated Solvent Source Treatment Strategies with Monitored Natural Attenuation
2004. Brian B. Looney and Karen M. Vangelas. WSRC-MS-2004-00236, 22 pp.
A Decision Flowchart for the Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Attenuation Sites with Chlorinated Organic Plumes
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) Enhanced Attenuation/Chlorinated Organics Team. 13 pp, 2007
The flowchart provides a mechanism for transitioning sites through the remediation process, supports decision-making by regulators and site managers, and can be used to determine site remedial change from MNA to active remediation through enhanced attenuation (EA) technologies. EA is a plume remediation strategy to achieve ground-water restoration goals by providing a 'bridge' between MNA and more aggressive methods.
A Decision Framework for Applying Monitored Natural Attenuation Processes to Metals and Radionuclides in Groundwater
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC), Attenuation Processes for Metals and Radionuclides Team. APMR-1, 204 pp, December 2010
Provides a decision framework incorporating key aspects of EPA's three-volume technical background series on MNA for metals and rads in groundwater, guidance on approaches and key issues associated with evaluating attenuation-based remedies, and a process to incorporate enhanced attenuation.
Delivery and Mixing in the Subsurface: Processes and Design Principles for In Situ Remediation
Kitanidis, P.K. and P.L. McCarty (eds.).
Springer, New York. ISBN: 978-1-4614-2238-9. SERDP-ESTCP Environmental Remediation Technology, Vol. 4, 325 pp, 2012
This technology monograph describes the principles of chemical delivery and mixing systems and their design and implementation for effective in situ remediation. In situ technologies discussed include chemical oxidation, surfactant/cosolvent flushing, subsurface reactors, recirculation systems, PRBs, gas delivery via sparging, and intrinsic remediation in natural-gradient systems. Numerous case studies are provided. Table of contents and abstracts.
Designing Monitoring Programs to Effectively Evaluate the Performance of Natural Attenuation
2000. Wiedemeier, Todd H.; Mary A. Lucas; Patrick E. Haas, AFCEE/ERT, 55 pp.
Draft Protocol for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Monitored Natural Attenuation Explosives-Contaminated Sites
1999. J.C. Pennington; R. Bowen; J.M. Brannon; M. Zakikhani; D.W. Harrelson, Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. WES/TR/EL-99-10, NTIS: ADA369244, 156 pp.
Draft Technical Protocol for Characterizing Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvent Ground-Water Plumes Discharging into Wetlands
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program, ESTCP Project CU-9913, 53 pp, 2006
Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC), Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Team.
EACO-1, 109 pp, 2008
This guidance contains a protocol to assist in a smooth transition between aggressive remedial actions and MNA. This transition is based on the concept of enhanced attenuation, which encompasses an evaluation of mass balance, a decision framework to provide guidance for site decisions, and a toolbox of potential technologies that optimize aquifer conditions to provide a sustainable treatment or minimize the energy needed to reduce contaminant loading and/or increase the attenuation capacity of an aquifer.
Enhanced Attenuation: A Reference Guide on Approaches to Increase the Natural Treatment Capacity of a System
Early, T., B. Borden, M. Heitkamp, B.B. Looney, D. Major, W.J. Waugh, G. Wein, T. Wiedemeier, K.M. Vangelas, K.M. Adams, and C.H. Sink. WSRC-STI-2006-00083, Revision 1, 161 pp, Aug 2006
This guide covers the following EA approaches: (1) hydraulic manipulation to reduce contaminant infiltration using low-permeability barriers, diffusion barriers, covers, encapsulation, and diversion of electron acceptors; (2) passive residual source reduction (e.g., bioventing); (3) increase in system attenuation capacity via biological processes, such as bioaugmentation, biostimulation, and wetlands development and other plant-based methods; (4) abiotic and biologically mediated abiotic attenuation methods; and (5) reactive barriers.
Estimating Cleanup Times Associated with Combining Source-Area Remediation with Monitored Natural Attenuation
M. Widdowson, F. Chapelle, C. Casey, and M. Kram.
NFESC TR-2288-ENV, 192 pp, 2008
U.S. EPA guidance specifically requires a reasonable time frame for MNA to achieve site-specific cleanup objectives; thus, it is necessary to provide estimates of cleanup times whenever MNA is proposed as part of a cleanup strategy. The U.S. Navy, USGS, and Virginia Tech have developed Natural Attenuation Software (NAS) as a screening tool designed for estimating time of remediation for MNA with varying degrees of source area remediation. This report describes the software and the results of its use 8 sites contaminated primarily with chlorinated ethenes.
This report 1) presents a strategy and framework for quantitatively assessing the sustainability of MNA-based remedies for groundwater chlorinated solvent-impacted sites, 2) provides case-study reviews using existing long-term monitoring data sets from multiple U.S. Air Force sites where chlorinated solvents exceed closure criteria, and 3) summarizes observations and recommendations that were developed when working through the case study examples. The 3 principal components of the sustainability assessment framework described in this report are analysis of plume stability, estimation of remediation timeframes, and estimation of the longevity of specific chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation processes.
A Framework for Assessing the Sustainability of Monitored Natural Attenuation
Chapelle, F.H., Novak, John, Parker, John, Campbell, B.G., and Widdowson, M.A., 2007, 35 p.
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) and Virginia Tech University, has developed a framework for assessing the long-term sustainability of monitored natural attenuation hazardous waste cleanup sites. The framework consists of methods for assessing the balance between the delivery of contaminants to the environment and their natural attenuation. This methodology, recently published as U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1303, provides environmental planners and managers with a quantitative plan for using monitored natural attenuation as the solution for cleaning up hazardous waste sites.
Guidance Protocol: Application of Nucleic Acid-Based Tools for Monitoring Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA), Biostimulation, and Bioaugmentation Chlorinated Solvent Sites
ESTCP Project ER-0518, 34 pp, 2011
This protocol summarizes the current state of the practice of molecular biological tools (MBTs), specifically nucleic-acid based tools commercially available to identify relevant Dehalococcoides bacteria. It is intended to provide a technically sound and practical approach to MBT use. This document provides recommendations regarding sampling approaches and criteria in evaluation of data for use in bioremediation decision making. See also the Project ER-0518 Final Report and the ESTCP Cost and Performance Report.
Guidance on Natural Attenuation for Petroleum Releases
2003. Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources. PUB-RR-614, 104 pp.
Guidance on Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Ground Water by Natural Attenuation
Washington State Department of Ecology, Toxics Cleanup Program.
Publication 05-09-091, 143 pp, 2005.
Historical and Retrospective Survey of Monitored Natural Attenuation: Lines of Inquiry Supporting Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation of Chlorinated Solvents
2004. T.M. McGuire, C.J. Newell, B.B. Looney, and K.M. Vangelas. WSRC-TR-2003-00333, Rev. 1, 96 pp.
Implementing Monitored Natural Attenuation and Expediting Closure Fuel-Release Sites
2004. J.S. Brauner, D.C. Downey, J.R. Hicks, B.M. Henry, J.E. Hansen. Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence Technology Transfer and Defense Logistics Agency. NTIS: ADA426387, 247 pp.
This text is an addendum to the Technical Protocol for Implementing Intrinsic Remediation with Long-Term Monitoring for Natural Attenuation of Fuel Contamination Dissolved in Groundwater (AFCEE, 1995). The 1995 AFCEE protocol is to be retained, with this addendum providing expanded guidance on developing and implementing expedited closure plans and formal exit strategies for fuel-release sites.
Manual for Biological Remediation Techniques
International Centre for Soil and Contaminated Sites, 81 pp, 2006
Provides an initial overview of selected organic contaminants, describes their susceptibility to microbial degradation in soil and groundwater, and reviews their treatment potential by land farming, biobeds, bioreactors, bioslurping, bioventing, biosparging, bioscreen, bioaugmentation, and monitored natural attenuation. Monitoring of bioremediation progress is also discussed.
Mass Balance: A Key to Advancing Monitored and Enhanced Attenuation For Chlorinated Solvents
B.B. Looney, K. Vangelas, K.M. Adams, F.H. Chappelle, T.O. Early, and C.H. Sink.
WSRC-STI-2006-00082, 91 pp, 2006
This report introduces the mass balance concept, examines the contributions and significance of various components of the mass balance, and provides an initial assessment of promising development areas.
This report outlines a method for estimating timeframes required for natural attenuation processes, such as dispersion, sorption, and biodegradation, to lower contaminant concentrations and mass to predetermined regulatory goals in groundwater systems. The time-of-remediation (TOR) problem described in this report is formulated as three interactive components: (1) estimating the length of a contaminant plume once it has achieved a steady-state configuration from a source area of constant contaminant concentration, (2) estimating the time required for a plume to shrink to a smaller, regulatoryacceptable configuration when source-area contaminant concentrations are lowered by engineered methods, and (3) estimating the time needed for nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants to dissolve, disperse, and biodegrade below predetermined levels in contaminant source areas.
Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE): Its Movement and Fate in the Environment and Potential for Natural Attenuation
1999. Parsons Engineering Science, Inc., 221 pp.
This report presents an overview of the physical and chemical characteristics of MTBE, summarizes the literature regarding its degradation, and provides recommendations for data collection and analysis in support of natural attenuation supplemented with long-term monitoring for restoration of ground water contaminated with MTBE.
Microbial Mineralization of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride as a Component of Natural Attenuation of Chloroethene Contaminants under Conditions Identified in the Field as Anoxic
U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2012-5032, 41 pp, 2012
Oxygen-based microbial mineralization of DCE and VC can be substantial under field conditions characterized as anoxic. A modified framework is detailed for assessing the potential importance of oxygen during chloroethene biodegradation.
Monitored Natural Attenuation
2004. Chapter IX in How to Evaluate Alternative Cleanup Technologies for Underground Storage Tank Sites: A Guide for Corrective Action Plan Reviewers. U.S. EPA, Office of Underground Storage Tanks, EPA 510-R-04-002, 77 pp.
Monitored Natural Attenuation Technical Guidance
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Site Remediation Program, 175 pp, 2012
This technical guidance discusses MNA of organic compounds (particularly petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents), inorganics, and radionuclides for groundwater sites in New Jersey. Numerous references are listed for additional information, and excerpts from selected references are provided in the appendices.
Volume 1 of 3 consists of three sections that describe 1) the conceptual background for natural attenuation for inorganic contaminants, 2) the technical basis for attenuation of inorganic contaminants in ground water, and 3) approaches to site characterization to support evaluation of MNA. Emphasis is placed on characterization of immobilization and/or degradation processes that may control contaminant attenuation, as well as technical approaches to assess performance characteristics of the MNA remedy. A tiered analysis approach is presented to assist in organizing site characterization tasks in a manner designed to reduce uncertainty in remedy selection.
Monitored Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water, Volume 2: Assessment for Non-Radionuclides, Including Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Lead, Nickel, Nitrate, Perchlorate, and Selenium
EPA 600-R-07-140, 2007
In a separate chapter for each listed contaminant, Volume 2 of 3 describes (1) the natural immobilization or degradation processes that can result in the attenuation of the contaminant and (2) data requirements to be met during site characterization. The document emphasizes characterization of immobilization and/or degradation processes that may control contaminant attenuation, as well as technical approaches to assess performance characteristics of the MNA remedy. A tiered analysis approach is presented to assist in organizing site characterization tasks.
Monitored Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water, Volume 3: Assessment for Radionuclides Including Tritium, Radon, Strontium, Technetium, Uranium, Iodine, Radium, Thorium, Cesium, and Plutonium-Americium
EPA 600-R-10-093, 2010
In a separate chapter for each listed contaminant, Volume 3 of 3 describes (1) the natural radioactive decay or immobilization processes that can result in the attenuation of the contaminant and (2) data requirements to be met during site characterization. The document emphasizes characterization of immobilization and/or radioactive decay processes that may control contaminant attenuation or flux reduction, as well as technical approaches to assess performance characteristics of the MNA remedy. A tiered analysis approach is presented to assist in organizing site characterization tasks.
Monitored Natural Attenuation of MTBE as a Risk Management Option Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites
J.T. Wilson, P.M. Kaiser, and C. Adair, U.S. EPA, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Ada, OK. EPA 600-R-04-179, 89 pp, Jan 2005
This report reviews the current state of knowledge on the transport and fate of MTBE in ground water, with emphasis on the natural processes that can be used to manage the risk associated with MTBE in ground water or that contribute to natural attenuation of MTBE as a remedy. It provides recommendations on the site characterization data necessary to manage risk or to evaluate monitored natural attenuation (MNA) of MTBE, and it illustrates procedures that can be used to work up data to evaluate risk or assess MNA a specific site. The information is intended to allow state regulators to determine whether they have adequate information to evaluate MNA of fuel oxygenates at a site and to allow the regulators to separate sites where MNA of fuel oxygenates may be an appropriate risk management alternative from sites where MNA is not appropriate.
Monitored Natural Attenuation of Tertiary Butyl Alcohol (TBA) in Ground Water Gasoline Spill Sites
J.T. Wilson and C. Adair.
EPA 600-R-07-100, 55 pp, 2007
Although TBA generally is considered to be more readily degradable in ground water than MTBE, a close examination of the available information indicates that a default presumption that TBA is readily degraded in anaerobic ground water is not justified. The authors review the prospects for using monitored natural attenuation to manage the risk from TBA in ground water gasoline spill sites.
Monitoring and Assessment of In-Situ Biocontainment of Petroleum Contaminated Ground-Water Plumes
EPA 600-R-98-020, 1998. NTIS: PB98-145329, 218 pp.
Natural Attenuation General Data Guide
1999. M.L. Kram; F. Goetz, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA. NAVFAC-UG-2035-ENV, NTIS: ADA361097, 38 pp.
This guide is a decision-making tool to help remedial project managers (RPMs) determine whether natural attenuation can be used as a remedial option contaminant release sites. Data requirements and methodology to evaluate the potential for using natural attenuation are presented. Tables of commonly measured parameters, general data collection rationale, and interpretation guidance are included to help the RPM recognize data gaps, interpret data, construct a conceptual site model, and develop a sampling and analysis plan for evaluation and monitoring purposes.
Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practices
1999. Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation (ITRC) Working Group. 117 pp.
Natural Attenuation of Metals and Radionuclides -- An Overview of the Sandia/ DOE Approach
1998. R.D. Waters; P.V. Brady; D.J. Borns. SAND--98-0415C, NTIS: DE98003135, 14 pp.
Sandia National Laboratories is developing guidelines that outline the technical basis for relying on natural attenuation for the remediation of metals and radionuclide-contaminated soils and groundwaters DOE sites for those specific cases where natural processes are effective at ameliorating soil and ground-water toxicity.
Natural Attenuation of Perchlorate in Groundwater: Processes, Tools and Monitoring Techniques: Protocol Report
M.T. Lieberman and R.C. Borden.
ESTCP, Project ER-0428, 80 pp, 2008
This document provides information on fate, transport, and transformation of perchlorate in different geochemical environments; emerging and/or specialized technologies for evaluating perchlorate attenuation in groundwater; and a tiered approach for evaluating MNA of perchlorate.
Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents Using RT3D
C.D. Johnson, M.J. Truex, and T.P. Clement.
PNNL-15937, 77 pp, 2006
This document describes the context for applying RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3 Dimensions) to monitored natural attenuation of chlorinated solvent contamination in ground water. It also discusses dechlorination reactions that may occur and the general approach for using RT3D reaction modules (including a summary of the RT3D reaction modules that are available) to model fate and transport of chlorinated solvents as part of MNA or for combinations of MNA and selected types of active remediation.
Performance Monitoring of MNA Remedies for VOCs in Ground Water
EPA 600-R-04-027, 2004
This document provides technical recommendations regarding the types of monitoring parameters and analyses useful for evaluating the effectiveness of the natural attenuation component of ground-water remedial actions. The information will be helpful during the design of the performance monitoring plan as well as during its implementation.
The Scenarios Approach to Attenuation-Based Remedies for Inorganic and Radionuclide Contaminants
Truex, M., P. Brady, C. Newell, M. Rysz, M. Denham, and K. Vangelas.
SRNL-STI-2011-00459, 111 pp, Aug 2011
This document was developed as a technical resource to guide interested parties through the process of evaluating attenuation-based remedies for sites contaminated with inorganic or radionuclide contaminants. The six scenarios are based on aquifer geochemical properties: oxidation-reduction potential, cation exchange capacity, and ferric iron oxide content. Section 1 steps the reader through using the scenarios approach, including how to choose a scenario, the parameters on which the scenarios are based, and worksheets to organize data. Section 2 discusses specific attenuation processes affecting contaminant mobility, shows how to use a scenario to develop a site conceptual model, discusses how to apply MNA and EA to specific scenarios, and ties the scenarios approach to U.S. EPA's four tiers of evidence for demonstrating MNA. Section 3 provides detail on attenuation mechanisms and development of conceptual models, discusses the EPA four-tiered approach in more detail, and includes additional information on geochemical reactions, monitoring, remediation, and costs. Appendix B contains a synopsis of mercury chemistry.
Scenarios Evaluation Tool for Chlorinated Solvent MNA
M.J. Truex, C.J. Newell, B.B. Looney, and K.M. Vangelas.
WSRC-STI-2006-00096, Revision 2, 194 pp, 2007
This approach presents a framework that links the MNA evaluation and associated decision logic to key site characteristics and known NA phenomena. The tool consists of a user's guide and 13 scenarios built around general site and hydrogeologic conditions.
Site Characterization to Support Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation for Remediation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water
R.G. Ford, R.T. Wilkin, and S. Acree.
EPA 600-R-08-114, 16 pp, 2008
This Issue Paper highlights what stage of the process solid-phase characterization techniques need to be implemented during site characterization and describes two case studies (one site affected by arsenic, lead, and chromium, and the other by uranium) where the results of these techniques were critical to evaluation of MNA as a potential component of ground-water cleanup.
Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area: Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) Programmatic, Technical, and Regulatory Issues
2001. Krupka, K.M.; W.J. Martin, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.Report No: PNNL-13569, 138 pp.
Technical Guide: Monitored Natural Recovery Contaminated Sediment Sites
V.S. Magar, D.B. Chadwick, T.S. Bridges, P.C. Fuchsman, J.M. Conder, T.J. Dekker, J.A. Steevens, K.E. Gustavson, and M.A. Mills.
ESTCP Project ER-0622, 276 pp, 2009
This technical guide focuses on the role of natural recovery processes in the remediation of contaminated sediments by providing case studies and generic examples to demonstrate concepts work in real-world situations. This document provides a step-by-step conceptual primer for applying MNR at sediment sites.
Provides guidance for environmental managers on the steps that must be taken to understand the rate and extent to which natural processes are reducing contaminant concentrations sites that are contaminated by chlorinated solvents. Data collected with this protocol can be used to evaluate natural attenuation through biological processes as part of a protective overall site remedy. The protocol is the result of a collaborative field and laboratory research effort involving researchers from U.S. EPA/ORD, the U. S. Air Force, and the U.S. Geological Survey.
Technical Protocol for Evaluating the Natural Attenuation of MtBE
API Publication 4761, 2007
Technical Protocol for Implementing Intrinsic Remediation with Long-Term Monitoring for Natural Attenuation of Fuel Contamination Dissolved in Groundwater, Vol. I
1999. T. Wiedemeier; J.T. Wilson; D.H. Kampbell; R.N. Miller; J.E. Hansen, Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE) Technology Transfer Division, Brooks AFB, San Antonio, TX. Volume 1, ADA324248, 323 pp.
This document presents a technical protocol for data collection and analysis in support of intrinsic remediation (natural attenuation) with long term monitoring (LTM) for restoration of ground water contaminated with fuel hydrocarbons. The protocol is designed to evaluate the fate in ground water of fuel hydrocarbons that have regulatory standards.
Understanding Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Behavior in Groundwater: Investigation, Assessment and Limitations of Monitored Natural Attenuation
2003. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. RR-699, 104 pp.
This Directive provides guidance to EPA staff, the public, and the regulated community on how EPA intends to exercise its discretion in implementing national policy on the use of Monitored Natural Attenuation for the remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater sites regulated under Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) programs.
Using Advanced Analysis Approaches to Complete Long-Term Evaluations of Natural Attenuation Processes on the Remediation of Dissolved Chlorinated Solvent Contamination
J.S. Brauner, D.C. Downey, and R. Miller.
SERDP Project ER-1348, 462 pp, 2008
This report presents a strategy and framework for quantitatively assessing the sustainability of MNA-based remedies for groundwater chlorinated solvent sites and summarizes observations and recommendations developed when working through the case studies. The case study reviews use existing long-term monitoring data sets from U.S. Air Force sites where chlorinated solvents exceed closure criteria. The described methods can also be used for the assessment of active remedies.
Verification of Methods for Assessing the Sustainability of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA)
Lebron, C.A., F.H. Chapelle, M.A. Widdowson, J.T. Novak, J.C. Parker, and M.A. Singletary.
ESTCP Project ER-0824, CR-NAVFAC EXWC-EV-1302, 109 pp, 2013
ESTCP funded a technology demonstration at 17 chlorinated solvent sites to validate an approach for assessing MNA sustainability based on three components: potentially bioavailable organic carbon (PBOC), the source zone depletion (SZD) function, and long-term sustainability (LTS) using PBOC and dissolved oxygen concentration data. The estimated cost for running a single PBOC test is $75 per sample.