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CLU-IN Studio
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Triad Month Session 3: Triad During RD/RA
Sponsored by: U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division
Original Time/Date of Presentation:

August 11, 2009, 11:30 AM - 1:30 PM, EDT (15:30-17:30 GMT)

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Presentation Overview:

A little over a year ago, over 260 individuals gathered from the U.S. and abroad at UMass-Amherst in Massachusetts to discuss the use of the Triad Approach to conduct investigations and remedial actions faster, better, and at a reduced cost. The Triad Community of Practice (CoP) decided to update and repackage several of those same sessions to benefit the greater CLU-IN audience that either may not have been able to attend the conference, or were not able to attend a specific presentation while at the conference. By doing this, we hope you too can learn more about some of the Triad tools and how they have been applied by your colleagues in the environmental industry.

Today's session is the third in a series of seven sessions collectively comprising Triad Month on CLU-IN. This two-hour session will look to dispel the common perception that Triad is simply a tool used during characterization. To meet that objective, we will be re-delivering two of the selected presentation from the June 2008 conference on this topic. The first is a case study involving Seymour Johnson AFB in North Carolina, where future first planning, Triad techniques, and performance-based contracting strategies were employed to accelerate site closure. The second is a demonstration of one of the many useful tools in the Triad toolbox — Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA). In addition to learning more about SADA, the instructor will use a removal action to demonstrate the use of this useful Triad technique.

See also the calendar for August 2009 at CLU-IN ( for more details about all seven sessions being offered during Triad Month.

Presentation Abstracts:

The Use of Future First Planning, Triad, and Performance-Based Contracting to Accelerate Site Closure at Seymour Johnson AFB
Martin Wangensteen, Bay West, Inc.

Environmental restoration sites have been historically avoided at military installations thereby restricting development options at the potential expense of the installation's mission. This session describes the USAF Air Combat Command's (ACC) and USACE-Omaha District's successful integration of the Future First Planning (F2P) concept, the Triad approach, and performance-based contracting to accelerate cleanup and un-encumber mission-critical real estate at Seymour Johnson AFB.

Petroleum odors were noticed at the Radar Tower Site (OT-29) during construction activities in 1989. Subsequent investigations identified halogenated and non-halogenated volatile organic compounds and lighter-than-water, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) in soil and ground water. OT-29 interim actions were effective in protecting nearby receptors but only marginally successful in source removal and driving the site to closure. To accelerate the site closure process, ACC/USACE developed an exit strategy involving: 1) the Triad approach to dynamically accelerate site characterization; and, 2) a performance-based remedial action contract to empower the remediation contractor to implement innovative site closure solutions.

In two field characterization efforts, the Triad approach was used to delineate soil and ground water impacts with 55 direct push points and over 670 soil and ground water samples for analyses. This approach saved $60,000 and six months time relative to standard investigation techniques and generated data for use by the performance-based contractor's remediation team to design the streamlined cleanup approach.

The performance-based site closure strategy involves: 1) development of remedial goals that match future land use; 2) aggressive removal of LNAPL using surfactants and mobile multiphase extraction; 3) excavation and on-site treatment/beneficial reuse of contaminated source-area soils; and 4) aggressive treatment of residual ground water impacts via in situ chemical oxidation with subsequent monitored natural attenuation. The use of these techniques is projected to result in life cycle cleanup cost savings of $1.8M and 20 years over the previous remediation strategy.

Use of SADA to Expedite a Collaborative Soil Removal Action
Jim Wulff, Tetra Tech EMI

Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) software played a key role in expediting the contaminated soil removal action at the Barker Chemical Company site in Inglis, Florida. More than 100 residential parcels occupy a site where phosphate ore was processed into fertilizer, creating waste material elevated in lead and arsenic. SADA managed data on contaminant concentrations estimated from discrete and composite samples and analyzed with an X-ray fluorescence detector in the field and measured in samples sent to a laboratory. SADA provided a platform to integrate the four data streams resulting from the sampling effort into a collaborative data set to make remedial decisions. SADA visualizations satisfied the overlapping - yet distinct - remedial goals and criteria of two regulatory agencies (the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection [FDEP]), each having a different soil removal criterion for arsenic. Thus, SADA was an instrumental part of the collaborative process that guided the removal action.

SADA visualizations identified parcels where soil removal was required, based on composite samples that exceeded the EPA's removal criterion of 40 milligram per kilogram (mg/kg). Next, contaminant concentrations were interpolated in SADA's Area of Concern (AOC) module to delineate areas where arsenic and lead concentrations exceeded the FDEP criterion of 8 mg/kg. The AOCs were exported from SADA, converted to ArcView shapefiles and loaded to a handheld device to guide excavation in real time. As a result, contaminated soil was excavated to the FDEP criterion in the parcels selected for removal actions, a selection that was based on the EPA criterion. AOC maps were also created for parcels where the contaminant concentration in soil was estimated to exceed FDEP - but not EPA - criteria, so that FDEP could pursue further remediation under a state program.

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