U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Effectiveness of Point of Entry Systems to Remove Select Per- and Poly- fluoroalkyl Substances from Drinking Water

Sponsored by: U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development, Office of Science Policy

Archived: Monday, November 26, 2018
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Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) contamination of groundwater sources in the U.S. is a widespread problem for the drinking water industry. Well water supplies in the municipalities of Fountain, Security, and Widefield, Colorado, contain Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) health advisory level of 70 nanograms/liter (ng/L). The source of PFAS in the well water has been associated with aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) at Peterson Air Force Base (AFB). Several public water systems and numerous private well owners use the impacted Widefield Aquifer as their sole source of drinking water. To assist property owners and limit exposure of PFAS in residential drinking water systems, treatability studies were conducted by EPA on the PFAS removal effectiveness of commercially available Point-of-Use (POU)/Point-of-Entry (POE) units using Reverse Osmosis (RO) treatment and Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) adsorbents. Household water systems were tested with a representative test water with the water quality characteristics and six PFAS contaminants found in Widefield Aquifer region groundwater samples. The study also documented the ease of use during installation, startup, and continuous/intermittent operation of the water systems.

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A photograph of Craig PattersonCraig Patterson, U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory ( or 513-487-2805)
Craig Patterson is currently an Environmental Engineer in USEPA's Water Systems Division (WSD) conducting drinking water research studies in Cincinnati, Ohio. Craig's EPA research has focused on small drinking water treatment technologies including filtration, point-of-entry/point-of-use devices, advanced oxidation and disinfection processes. He received his Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering and Master of Science in Environmental Engineering from the University of Cincinnati. Prior to joining U.S. EPA in 2003, Craig worked as a project engineer for environmental consulting firms for 20 years. He is a professional engineer in the State of Ohio.


A photograph of Jean BalentJean Balent, U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division ( or 202-566-0832)
Ms Balent is on the staff of the EPA's Technology Innovation and Field Services Division where she has worked to collect and disseminate hazardous waste remediation and characterization information since 2003. Ms Balent manages the Clean Up Information Network website and actively supports online communication and collaboration resources available to EPA. She formerly worked with the US Army Corps of Engineers Environmental Engineering Division in the Buffalo District. Ms Balent was also a member of the SUNY-Buffalo Groundwater Research Group where she constructed and tested large scale models of groundwater flow. Ms Balent has also conducted research relating to the Great Lakes, environmental remediation, and brownfields re-development. She holds a Bachelor's degree in environmental engineering from SUNY-Buffalo and a Master's degree in Information Technology from AIU.

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Jean Balent
Technology Integration and Information Branch

PH: 202-566-0832 | Email:
Michael Adam
Technology Integration and Information Branch

PH: 202-566-0875 | Email: