U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Strategies & Initiatives


High-Resolution Site Characterization (HRSC) Focus Area

The High-Resolution Site Characterization (HRSC) Focus Area reflects the state-of-the-science for environmental site characterization. HRSC strategies and technologies use scale-appropriate measurement and data density to delineate contaminant distributions in environmental media with greater certainty, supporting faster and more effective remedy selection, design and implementation. This website provides a description of the general concepts and benefits of HRSC and offers resources including case studies for sites where HRSC has been applied, information on practitioner forums, information on available training, and instructions on accessing available support for understanding and applying HRSC.

Remediation Process Optimization

Remediation Process Optimization (RPO) involves systematic monitoring and evaluation to detect and respond to changes in performance. System optimization offers benefits that include enhanced protectiveness, reduced cost, shortened cleanup times, and the increased likelihood of site closeout.

Long-Term Monitoring Optimization

Long-term monitoring is defined as monitoring conducted after some active, passive, or containment remedy has been selected and put in place, and is used to evaluate the degree to which the remedial measure achieves its objectives (e.g., removal of groundwater contaminants, restoration of groundwater quality, etc.). LTM optimization (LTMO) offers an opportunity to improve the cost-effectiveness of the LTM effort by assuring that monitoring achieves its objectives with an appropriate level of effort. The optimization may identify inadequacies in the monitoring program, and recommend changes to protect against potential impacts to the public and the environment. LTMO may also reduce costs. This is especially true as the remedy progresses, monitored parameters become more predictable, and the extent of contamination diminishes. Decreases in monitoring frequency, locations, and analytical requirements can result in substantial cost savings, and such reductions can be implemented in ways to maintain adequate understanding of the site conditions to make site decisions.

Green Remediation

EPA's Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation has developed a Green Remediation web site. The site explains the basic principles and objectives of green remediation, and outlines best practices for reducing the environmental footprint of contaminated site cleanup projects. Over coming months, the site will expand to describe more details on green remediation best practices, and serve as a clearinghouse for technical materials, decision-making tools, site-specific case studies illustrating green remediation implementation efforts, and information on green remediation related events and new information products.

For more information, please contact Carlos Pachon, Technology Integration and Information Branch, 202-566-0873,

U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development Land Research Program

This site provides information on the innovative science solutions being developed by the program to preserve the nation's land, restore contaminated properties, and protect public health from exposure to environmental contaminants. The site includes a description of the program, fact sheets, science topic experts, links to ORD technical support centers, research publications, research accomplishments, and links to tools, models, and information.

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U.S. EPA - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Superfund Partnership: Program, Policy, Guidance, and Activities

The Superfund program and EPA's support were instrumental in developing the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' environmental remediation expertise and missions. The Corps continues to support the EPA's Superfund mission through design, construction, real estate services and technical assistance. Established at the request of the headquarters of both organizations, this joint site is intended for hosting information useful and/or beneficial to both EPA and the Corps Superfund project and program managers.

Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable

The mission of the Roundtable is to exchange information and provide a forum for joint activity regarding the development and demonstration of innovative technologies for hazardous waste site remediation. The exchange systhesizes the technical knowledge that Federal Agenices have compiled and provides a more comprehensive record of performance and cost. Members include major developers and users of these technologies: Department of Defense: U.S. Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Department of Energy, Department of the Interior, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS)

The Council of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) established the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) in 1969. CCMS was charged with developing meaningful programs to share information among countries on environmental and societal issues that complement other international endeavors and to provide leadership in solving specific problems of the human environment. A fundamental precept of CCMS involves the transfer of technological and scientific solutions among nations with similar environmental challenges. The management of contaminated land and groundwater is a universal problem among industrialized countries, requiring new and improved remedial technologies. Documents describing a Pilot Study that was designed to share information among countries on innovative treatment technologies are available for downloading.

Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC)

ITRC is a state-led coalition working together with industry and stakeholders to achieve regulatory acceptance of environmental technologies.

ITRC consists of more than 35 states that work to break down barriers and reduce compliance costs, making it easier to use new technologies and helping states maximize resources. ITRC brings together a diverse mix of environmental experts and stakeholders from both the public and private sectors to broaden and deepen technical knowledge and streamline the regulation of new environmental technologies. ITRC accomplishes its mission in two ways: it develops guidance documents and training courses to meet the needs of both regulators and environmental consultants, and it works with state representatives to ensure that ITRC products and services have maximum impact among state environmental agencies and technology users.

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Former Initiatives and Partnerships

EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, Materials Management and Remediation (MMR) Center

The EPA ETV program seeks to provide credible information about the performance of environmental technologies from disinterested third parties under the auspices of EPA. The Materials Management and Remediation Center, established in 2008, is operated in cooperation with Battelle. This center verifies the performance of materials management technologies, including for recycling, beneficial use of waste materials, recovery of useful components of waste, and treatment to minimize disposal requirements (e.g., containment, volume, cost); and technologies to remediate contaminated land and ground water, such as that found at Superfund sites and other properties where industrial or commercial activities have resulted in a legacy of hazardous constituents that limit future use of the property.

Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD)

The Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) Program is funded by the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) to help accelerate the adoption and implementation of new and innovative remediation technologies. Developed as a Public-Private Partnership program with Clean Sites, Inc., and the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Technology Innovation and Field Services Division and coordinated by Sandia National Laboratories, the ITRD Program attempts to reduce many of the classic barriers to the use of new technologies by involving government, industry, and regulatory agencies in the assessment, implementation, and validation of innovative technologies.

Triad Community of Practice (CoP)

The Triad Community of Practice (CoP) includes representatives of federal, state, and private sector organizations in the U.S. and abroad who have increased the cost-effectiveness and success rates for their own environmental clean-up projects by employing the Triad approach. The CoP provides a mechanism for extracting the knowledge and project experience of these field practitioners and transferring it to the rest of the environmental community. CoP participation is voluntary and open to public and private field practitioners interested in and committed to sharing their knowledge and experience with innovative approaches to site characterization and cleanup. The day-to-day work of the CoP is performed by three working groups, which focus on Coordination and Marketing, Education, and Technology and Science. The CoP meets via conference call on the third Tuesday of each month.

For more information on the Triad CoP, please contact Deana Crumbling at or 703-603-0643.

EPA Ground Water Task Force

EPA's Ground Water Task Force was a workgroup established under the "One Cleanup Program Initiative" of the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). This Task Force was comprised of EPA and State regulatory officials, and was formed to: serve as the main technical / policy / communication / networking resource for OSWER on groundwater issues; promote cross-program coordination and communication on technical and policy issues related to the cleanup of contaminated groundwater; identify and prioritize and work to solve and/or provide guidance on groundwater issues and projects that will benefit multiple programs; and assign subgroups to work on priority issues, and/or making recommendations to EPA senior management on the best course of actions for such issues.

EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, Site Characterization and Monitoring Technologies (SCMT) within the Advanced Monitoring Systems Center

The EPA ETV program seeks to provide credible information about the performance of environmental technologies from disinterested third parties under the auspices of EPA. The Site Characterization and Monitoring Technologies Pilot functions within the Advanced Monitoring Systems Center of ETV to evaluate technologies that can be used to characterize the environment. Third-party verification organizations design and perform simulated field demonstrations and prepare reports on each technology accompanied by verification statements.

Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF) in 1992 to enhance the development and application of innovative hazardous waste characterization and treatment technologies. Eight self-managed RTDF Action Teams have formed over the years. The last Action Team was established in 2001 and several teams have completed, or are no longer actively involved, in field demonstrations of new technologies. Therefore, as of the end of June 2006, active maintenance of the RTDF web site will no longer be conducted. However, the web site, including all RTDF products, will be available and minor updates will be made on an as needed basis.

Measurement and Monitoring Technologies for the 21st Century (21M2)

Through the Measurement and Monitoring Technologies for the 21st Century initiative, EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) identified and deployed promising measurement and monitoring technologies in response to waste management and site cleanup program needs by matching existing and emerging technologies with OSWER program and client needs.

State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners

The State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners (SCRD) was established in 1998, with support from EPA's Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation. It is comprised of member states with established drycleaner remediation programs, with additional participation from "Represented States" that are active in the remediation of drycleaner sites under other authorities. The Coalition's primary objectives are to provide a forum for the exchange of information and the discussion of implementation issues related to established state drycleaner programs; share information and lessons learned with states without drycleaner-specific programs; and encourage the use of innovative technologies in drycleaner remediation. As of 2020, the SCRD continues to conduct regular conference calls that focus on site assessment and remediation technologies, and administering drycleaner cleanup programs.

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Technical and Technology Support Services

Triad Support

The Triad approach to decision-making for hazardous waste sites offers a technically defensible methodology for managing decision uncertainty that leverages innovative characterization tools and strategies. The Triad refers to three primary components, systematic planning, dynamic work strategies, and real-time measurement systems. TIFSD provides stakeholders with support services for Triad projects including: Systematic planning, reviewing and providing comments on project documents, such as requests for proposals, work plans, field sampling plans, quality assurance plans, and conceptual site models; Facilitating the consideration and use of the Triad approach; Providing information about field-based technologies, appropriate sample design, and data management strategies for site assessment and cleanup; Identifying how dynamic work strategies and decision support tools can be incorporated in site assessment activities; as well as evaluating remedial technologies and their advantages and limitations for site-specific features and needs.

For more information at the following types of sites, please contact:

Remediation Optimization

Remediation optimization uses defined approaches to improve the effectiveness and efficiency with which an environmental remedy reaches its stated goals. TIFSD has provided optimization support including third-party site-wide optimization evaluations conducted by expert teams, the use of mathematical tools to determine optimal operating parameters or monitoring networks and the consideration of emerging technologies.

For more information, please contact Kirby Biggs, Technology Integration and Information Branch, 202-823-3081,

Superfund Sediment Resource Center

The Superfund Sediment Resource Center (SSRC) is designed to assist EPA staff on technical issues related to the cleanup of contaminated sediment sites. The Center focuses on providing timely and helpful input on site-specific issues for topics related to sediment site characterization such as data collection and evaluation; sediment stability; modeling (e.g., hydrodynamic, contaminant fate and transport, and food chain); ecological and human health risks; and the efficacy of remedies such as capping, dredging, monitored natural recovery (MNR), and treatment technologies.

For more information, please contact Matt Lambert, Science Policy Branch, 202-566-1385,

EPA Brownfields and Land Revitalization Technology Support Center

Coordinated through EPA's Technology Innovation and Field Services Division, the Brownfields and Land Revitalization Technology Support Center ensures that Brownfields decision makers are aware of the full range of technologies available to make informed or "smart" technology decisions for their sites. The Brownfields Center provides a readily accessible resource for unbiased assessments and supporting information on options relevant to specific sites. The Center also provides a technology-oriented review process for investigation and clean-up plans for these sites. The project also provides information about other available support activities, such as those conducted by the Technical Assistance to Brownfields (TAB) Program located at the five regional Hazardous Substance Research Centers. Direct support is available to EPA regional staff, state staff, and local governments.

U.S. EPA Environmental Response Team Center

The Environmental Response Team (ERT) offers an array of products to assist other environmental practitioners both in the field and in the office. They offer immediate download of items such as software packages, guidance related to a wide variety of environmental sampling procedures, analytical and quality assurance Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), fact sheets, and bulletins.

For more information, please contact Marc Greenburg, Environmental Response Team, (732) 321-6740,

U.S. EPA Technical Support Project

Provides technical assistance to Regional Remedial Project Managers, Corrective Action Staff, and On-Scene Coordinators. The Project consists of a network of Regional Forums and specialized Technical Support Centers located in ORD and the Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) laboratories, and OLEM's Environmental Response Team.

For more information, please contact Deb Cox, Technology Assessment Branch, 202-566-0946,

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