U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Detection and Site Characterization

Halogenated Alkanes


1,2-Dichloroethane(1,2-DCA) is a volatile halogenated organic compound and as such is subject to most standard characterization and analytical techniques used on this class of chemicals. Methods such as vertical profiling, dyes, and standard GC/MS are discussed in the main section for DNAPLs detection and site characterization.

Diffusion Samplers

1,2-DCA contaminated groundwater can be sampled by Diffusion Samplers (ITRC 2004).

Laboratory Methods

Analysis of 1,2-DCA can be performed using standard analyses such as SW-846 methods 8021bAdobe PDF Logo, 8260bAdobe PDF Logo, and 8261Adobe PDF Logo.

Field Screening Methods

Given its Henry's constant, 1,2-DCA should be detectable using headspace analysis with a field GC. Standards should be run to verify detection limit requirements. The photoionization energy for 1,2-DCA is 11.12 eV (EPA 1994); if a PID detector is used, the lamp must be 11.7 eV.

There are relatively few methods for directly detecting DNAPL in the subsurface. Ribbon NAPL samplers (e.g., the FLUTe(tm) membrane system) have been used successfully for field screening (EPA 2009).


DNAPL Remediation: Selected Projects Where Regulatory Closure Goals Have Been AchievedAdobe PDF Logo
EPA 542-R-09-008, 52 pp, 2009

Standard Operating Procedure# 2114: Photoionization Detector HNU
U.S. EPA, Emergency Response Team, 16 pp, 1994

This document contains an extensive list of chemicals with their photoionization potentials.

Technical and Regulatory Guidance for Using Polyethylene Diffusion Bag Samplers to Monitor Volatile Organic Compounds in GroundwaterAdobe PDF Logo
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC). DSP-3, 78 pp, 2004

Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods
U.S. EPA, SW-846 on line.

For Further Information

Compound-Specific Hydrogen Isotope Analysis of 1,2-Dichloroethane: Potential for Delineating Source and Fate of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Contaminants In Groundwater
Chartrand, M., S. Hirschorn, G. Lacrampe-Couloume, and B. Lollar.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 21(12):1841-1847(2007)
View abstract

Detection of Dehalogenase Activity in Crude Protein Extracts from 1,2-Dichloroethane-Contaminated Groundwater
Lyman, I., R. Reiss, and P. Guerra.
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Monterey, CA; May 2008). Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, ISBN 1-57477-163-9, Abstract B-019, 2008
View abstract

Development of a Fiber Optic Enzymatic Biosensor for 1,2-Dichloroethane
Campbell, D., C. Mueller, and K.F. Reardon.
Biotechnology Letters 28(12):883-887(2006)
View abstract

Evaluation of Vapor Intrusion Impacts Using Induced Building Depressurization
McHugh, T., T. Nickels, K. Gorder, and S. Brock.
2007 SERDP & ESTCP Partners in Environmental Technology Technical Symposium & Workshop, Washington, DC, December 4-6, 2007
View abstract

Fiber Optic Biosensors for Contaminant MonitoringAdobe PDF Logo
ESTCP Project CU-0115, 79 pp, 2005

Biosensors were used to analyze groundwater sampled from several monitoring wells at OU-8 of the Navy's SUBASE Bangor to evaluate biosensor performance under a range of conditions. The target analyte was 1,2-DCA.

Protocol for Use of Five Passive Samplers to Sample for a Variety of Contaminants in Groundwater
Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC) Diffusion/Passive Sampler Team.
DSP-5, 121 pp, Feb 2007