U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Treatment Technologies

Soil Vapor Extraction and Air Sparging

Halogenated Alkanes

According to (USACE 2002), all of the chlorinated alkanes covered in this DNAPL focus area are amenable to treatment by soil vapor extraction(SVE) technologies. This page lists case studies involving treatment by SVE of many of these alkanes.

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Bromochloromethane | Dibromochloromethane | Bromodichloromethane | Methylene Chloride | Chloroform | Carbon Tetrachloride | Trichlorofluoromethane | 1,1-Dichloroethane | 1,2-Dichloroethane | 1,1,1-Trichloroethane | 1,1,2-Trichloroethane | 1,1,2,2- Tetrachloroethane | Mixed Alkanes |


Adobe PDF LogoEngineering and Design: Soil Vapor Extraction and Bioventing
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
EM 1110-1-4001, 312 pp, 2002


Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

OU-1 contains the former fire-protection training area. Aqueous film-forming foam, halon, protein foams, carbon dioxide, chlorobromomethane, and dry chemicals were used as extinguishing chemicals during the fire-training exercises. OU-1 remedies include SVE, dual-phase extraction, and institutional controls. There is no cleanup goal for BCM; the focus is on BTEX and more commonly found halogenated alkenes and alkanes.


Spartan Chemical Co., Wyoming, Michigan
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

Spartan was a bulk chemical transfer and repackaging plant from 1952 to 1991, handling aromatic solvents, napthas, alcohols, ketones, ethers, chlorinated solvents, and lacquer thinners. Prior to 1963, the company discharged wastewater into the ground. The soil and groundwater are contaminated with over 25 organic compounds, primarily ethylbenzene, toluene, benzene, xylene, and 1,1,1-TCA. A final ROD addressing both soil and groundwater contamination was issued in 2007, calling for institutional controls on groundwater and land use, excavation and off-site disposal of highly contaminated soils, expansion of the existing SVE system, AS/SVE, ISCO, MNA, and a contingency for enhanced in situ bioremediation.


Tenth Street Site, Columbus, Nebraska
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The site is defined as those municipal drinking water wells that contain, or have contained, VOCs. While bromodichloromethane is listed as a contaminant of concern (20 µg/L) the principal threat is from PCE and its degradation products, which originate from a dry cleaning establishment. In September 2005, EPA issued a final ROD that included continued operation of the AS/SVE and pump and treat systems, limited action for the soils in two of the source areas, and chemical oxidation in the groundwater contaminant plume. The ISCO design was completed in September 2006, and injections have been conducted on a semi-annual basis starting in early 2007, with additional rounds planned for 2009.

Methylene Chloride

Electrical Resistive Heating at the Avery Dennison Site, Waukegan, Illinois (2003)
Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR) Cost and Performance Database.

In May 1985, roughly 1,585 gallons of MC was released from an underground pipe. Site cleanup activities performed from 1985 through 1998 included excavation, SVE, groundwater pump and treat, and air sparging. After additional investigations indicated the presence of DNAPL in the soil, electrical resistive heating was used from December 1999 through November 2000 to address the DNAPL source in the unsaturated zone.

Former Sta-Lube Site, Rancho Dominguez, California
DNAPL Remediation: Selected Projects Where Regulatory Closure Goals Have Been Achieved.Adobe PDF Logo
EPA 542-R-09-008, p 44-46, 2009

A methylene chloride release resulted in contaminated groundwater and DNAPL in soil. Treatment technologies chosen for the site included initial pump and treat, SVE, and excavation by large-diameter auger. A difficult-to-reach source zone was remediated using hydrogen peroxide and sodium persulfate, and the results allowed the state to certify closure.


Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, Inc., San Jose, California
California Department of Toxic Substances Control Web site.

Hitachi GST moved its R&D and administrative office operations to a different location in San Jose and demolished most of the R&D and administrative office buildings at the site, formerly owned and operated by IBM. A portion of land has been rezoned and will be sold and redeveloped. After chloroform was discovered in the site's soil, soil gas, and groundwater, remediation consisted of dual-phase vacuum extraction of soil vapor and contaminated groundwater using 4-in diameter extraction wells installed to the top of the AlB Aquitard at about 38 ft bgs. Dual-phase extraction was conducted selectively using 12 of 18 extraction wells installed to optimize mass removal performance. System operation lasted 56 weeks, or almost 13 months, with a 1-month shutdown occurring after ~3 months of system operation. During 7,968 hours of operation, the system removed 68.7 million cubic ft of soil vapor and 535,000 gallons of groundwater. The average system vapor extraction rate was 169 cubic feet per minute and the groundwater pumping rate was 1.2 gallons per minute.

Carbon Tetrachloride

Hanford 200 Area, Hanford, Washington
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

CT was used in the plutonium separation process and exists at the site in both DNAPL and dissolved phases. Since 1992, ~175,437 pounds of CT have been extracted from the soil through SVE. In a separate action, ~26,356 pounds of CT have been removed from groundwater to date (1.2 billion gallons pumped).

Hastings Ground Water Contamination, Hastings, Nebraska
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

At this large site with multiple sources, groundwater and soils are contaminated with various chlorinated solvents (two CT plumes related to grain fumigation), explosives (former Naval Ammunition Depot), PAHs, and metals. Remedy technologies selected include SVE, capping, enhanced in situ bioremediation, in-well aeration, pump and treat, and institutional controls.

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

In 1987, INL found that CT and TCE had migrated from where they were buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex to the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Many other organic, inorganic, and radioactive contaminants affect the site. Remedy components include soil excavation and removal, capping, SVE, and an evapotranspiration surface barrier. As of February 2010, 1.34 acres of the 5.69 acres total has been exhumed, and 3607 cubic meters of targeted waste has been packaged, over half of which has already been sent to WIPP for disposal. Over 232,000 pounds of total VOCs has been removed, over 135,600 pounds of which was CT.

Velsicol Chemical Corporation (Hardeman County, TN)
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

From 1964 to 1973, Velsicol used the Hardeman County Landfill for the disposal of ~130,000 drums of waste generated at its Memphis facility. COCs include base neutral acids, pesticides, PAHs, VOCs, and carbon tetrachloride. DNAPL likely is present in the saturated zone and will remain a long-term source through dissolution. Contamination affects ~3.7 million cubic yards of soil and extends ~2.5 miles from the site in the groundwater. Pump and treat was operated from November 1997 until November 2003, when it was deemed ineffective. An SVE pilot test conducted at one of the disposal areas in 2009-2011 removed substantial VOC mass, and SVE is being considered as a new full-scale remedy for OU2. Additional information: Site Optimization Review


Boomsnub/Airco, Vancouver, Washington
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

These 2 sites, a former metal plating facility and a compressed gas manufacturing plant, were combined into one site because contamination from the two facilities resulted in a commingled groundwater plume of VOCs and chromium covering 37 acres. Bromochloromethane, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and TCA are listed but are not the cleanup focus. Remediation goals include the reduction of Cr(VI) in groundwater to 80 µg/L and TCE to 5 µg/L. EPA conducted a soil removal action in OU-1 in 1994. The in-well stripping and SVE treatment systems for the VOC source area (OU-2) began operation in February 2004. The SVE system removed significant quantities of VOCs from the soil until removal rates reached asymptotic conditions in 2006. An extensive groundwater extraction network captures contaminated groundwater in OU-3. A pilot test of enhanced density driven convection (EDDC) to remove product dissolved in groundwater was conducted in 1999.


A.O. Polymer, New Jersey
U.S. EPA Superfund Site Progress Profile.

1,1-DCA is one of many solvents found at the site of this former polymer manufacturer and solvent reclaimer. Wastes disposed of in a .42-acre pit contaminated the vadose zone soil and groundwater. An SVE system has removed 43,000 pounds of VOCs from this area, and the groundwater pump and treatment system has captured 23,584 pounds of solvent.

Chemical Sales Company Superfund Site, Commerce City, Colorado
Colorado Dept. of Public Health and Environment, Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Division.

Operations at the former warehouse included the storage and repackaging of bulk chemicals from rail cars and drums. Sources of PCE, TCE, 1,1-DCA, 1,1-DCE, and vinyl chloride at the site have affected the local water supply district. The remedies selected include SVE for soil, AS/SVE for groundwater, resin adsorption for extracted vapors, and hydraulic control of contaminated groundwater. Since 1999, SVE has removed over 2.5 million cubic ft of soil vapor. With the signing of the June 2007 ESD, active remediation formally transitioned from AS/SVE to ISCO via injection of a modified Fenton's reagent in the source area.


AIRCO, Calvert City, Kentucky
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The site includes contamination at Airco and the adjacent BF Goodrich facility. AIRCO allegedly used the landfill for the disposal of an estimated 18,000 tons (dry basis) of unknown types of waste material from its Calvert City plant. The suspected wastes include caustics, acids, volatile organics, zinc acetate, mercuric acetate, and mercuric chloride. A pit area south of the BF Goodrich Landfill was used for the burning and burial of ~2.6 million gallons of liquid chlorinated organic wastes between 1965 and 1968, and an adjacent area was used once in 1972 to bury ~370 cubic yards of salt-brine sludge. From 1970 to 1983, scrap lumber and fuel oil were burned in this area two to three times per year for fire training. While chloroform is one of the 13 indicator chemicals of concern, the principal chemical is 1,2-DCA. The chosen remedy was to cap contaminated areas (landfills and burn pit) and use SVE for the vadose zone and pump and treat for the groundwater.


Fisher-Calo, La Porte, Indiana
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

In the early 1970s, Fisher-Calo and various subsidiaries used the facility for processing and distributing solvents, metal finishing supplies, and other industrial chemicals. Fisher-Calo also operated a solvent reclamation facility on the site for several years to recover and resell paint and metal cleaning solvents. 1,1,1-TCA is found in the soil and groundwater among other solvents. The treatment technologies chosen were SVE and pump and treat.


Verona Well Field, Battle Creek, Michigan
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The 1991 ROD specified soil and groundwater cleanup standards for 19 constituents. Standards in soil ranged from 0.014 mg/kg for carbon tetrachloride, 1,1-DCA, 1,1-DCE, and PCE to 16 mg/kg for toluene. Standards in groundwater ranged from 0.001 mg/L for vinyl chloride, 1,1,2-TCA, PCE, and benzene to 0.8 mg/kg for toluene. In 1992, SVE achieved the cleanup standards for all VOCs with removal of a total of 45,000 lbs of VOCs. Both carbon adsorption and catalytic oxidation were utilized to treat the extracted vapors prior to atmospheric discharge. Dual vacuum extraction and nitrogen sparging were implemented to enhance recovery rates during the latter stages of the groundwater cleanup. Air sparging in 2 source areas is removing VOCs from the groundwater. Because the air sparging appears to be successful, the private parties are continuing operation of those systems beyond the requirements, and EPA and the State have decided to perform further SVE supplemented by air sparging at the other source area.

1,1,2,2- Tetrachloroethane

Silresim Chemical Corporation, Lowell, Massachusetts
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The site consists of the 4.5-acre Silresim (a former chemical recycler) property with soil and groundwater contamination that extends to other nearby properties. Chemicals of concern include 1,1,2,2-TetCA, TCE, 1,2,4-trimethylebenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylebenzene, various PAHs, heavy metals, and PCBs. Initial treatment technologies were SVE (1998) for the source zones and pump and treat (1995) for the groundwater. The remedies were revisited in 2003, and the SVE system is being replaced by electric resistance heating (ERH). The ERH system should come on line in 2009-2010.

Mixed Alkanes

Del Monte Corp (Oahu Plantation)
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

Del Monte began growing pineapple on the 3,000-acre plantation in the 1940s and used fumigants, such as EDB, DBCP, and DCP, from the early 1940s until 1983 to control nematodes that infest the pineapple root. The site remedy includes institutional controls, capping, and soil vapor extraction.

Lorentz Barrel and Drum Superfund Site, San Jose, California
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

Site soils and groundwater are contaminated by metals, PCBs, and a variety of halogenated alkenes and alkanes, including 1,1,1-TCA, 1,2-DCP, 1,2-DCPA, and 1,1-DCA. The site remedy included removal and off-site disposal of highly contaminated soil, capping, SVE, and pump and treat.