U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Detection and Site Characterization

Halogenated Alkanes


1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane (TCTFE) is a volatile halogenated organic and as such is subject to most standard characterization and analytical techniques used on this class of chemicals. Methods such as vertical profiling, hydrophobic dyes, membrane interface probe, and standard GC/MS are discussed in the main section for DNAPLs detection and site characterization.

Diffusion Samplers

While Diffusion Samplers have been used mostly for chlorinated ethenes and BTEX, they have been found to work for TCTFE (McClellan AFB 2000).

Laboratory Methods

Analysis of TCTFE can be performed using standard analyses such as SW-846 methods 8021bAdobe PDF Logo, 8260bAdobe PDF Logo, and 8260cAdobe PDF Logo; however, TCTFE is not a listed compound and would show up as a TIC (tentatively identified compound). If using SW-846 methods, the laboratory should be notified that TCTFE is a contaminant of concern. If the compound is analyzed under the Superfund Contract Laboratory Program (CLP), it is on the CLP Target Compound List and will not be a TIC.

Field Screening Methods

GasTec markets a colorometric tube for TCTFE that has cross sensitivities. The detection range for the lowest tube is 1 to 20 ppm.

The photoionization potential for TCTFE is 11.78 eV, which suggests that a PID detector probably will not be effective (U.S. EPA 1994).


Standard Operating Procedure# 2114: Photoionization Detector HNUAdobe PDF Logo
U.S. EPA, Emergency Response Team, 16 pp, 1994

This document contains an extensive list of chemicals with their photoionization potentials.

Technology Application Analysis Report: Passive Diffusion Membrane SamplersAdobe PDF Logo
McClellan AFB Environmental Management Directorate, 84 pp, 2000

Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods
U.S. EPA, SW-846 on line.