U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Detection and Site Characterization

Halogenated Alkanes


Trichlorofluoromethane (TCFM) is a volatile chlorinated organic and as such is subject to most standard characterization and analytical techniques used on this class of chemicals. Methods such as vertical profiling, membrane interface probe, and standard GC/MS are discussed in the main section for DNAPLs detection and site characterization.

Diffusion Samplers

While Diffusion Samplers have been used mostly for chlorinated ethenes and BTEX, they have been found to work for TCFM (ITRC 2004).

Laboratory Methods

Analysis of TCFM can be performed using standard analyses such as SW-846 methods 8021bAdobe PDF Logo, 8260bAdobe PDF Logo, 8260cAdobe PDF Logo, and 8261aAdobe PDF Logo

Field Screening Methods

Given its Henry's Constant, TCFM should be detectable using headspace analysis with a field GC. Standards should be run to verify detection limit requirements. The photoionization energy for TCFM is 11.77 eV (EPA 1994); hence, a PID detector is not likely to detect it.

Gastec Corporation produces a detector tube system for fluorochlorocarbons. The system is not specific to an individual chlorofluorocarbon and has detection limits starting at one ppm. The tubes can be used for ambient air sampling or for headspace analysis.


Standard Operating Procedure # 2114: Photoionization Detector HNU
U.S. EPA, Emergency Response Team, 16 pp, 1994

This document contains an extensive list of chemicals with their photoionization potentials.

Technical and Regulatory Guidance for Using Polyethylene Diffusion Bag Samplers to Monitor Volatile Organic Compounds in GroundwaterAdobe PDF Logo
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC). DSP-3, 78 pp, 2004

Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods
U.S. EPA, SW-846 on line