U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners Site Profiles

Boone Dry Cleaners, Jackson, Madison County, Tennessee

Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

The Boone Dry Cleaners site is 0.2 acre former drycleaning site (currently a welding supply store) located in a mixed use area (industrial, residential, commercial) near downtown Jackson, TN. The establishment operated for 20 years between 1945 and 1977, the exact dates of operation are not known. Asphalt predominantly covers the site, with small strips of exposed soil present in the alley east of the site and on the north side. Standard drycleaning activities are suspected to be the source of chlorinated solvent (PCE, TCE, cis-DCE) constituents detected in soil and groundwater in the vicinity of the site. The Savings Oil Company which neighbors the site, is suspected to be the source of BTEX constituents detected in groundwater.

Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.

Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
Benzene groundwater 32,100 ppb
chloroform soil 10 ppb
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 1,780 ppb
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene soil 156 ppb
1,2-Dichloroethane groundwater 10.2 ppb
1,1-Dichloroethene groundwater 2.7 ppb
ethylbenzene groundwater 5,400 ppb
No corresponding contaminant soil 151,000 ppb
n-butylbenzene soil 352 ppb
n-propylbenzene groundwater 552 ppb
n-propylbenzene soil 413 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater 89,800 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil 6,090,000 ppb
p-isopropyltoluene soil 354 ppb
1,2,4-trimethylbenzene groundwater 2,560 ppb
1,2,4-trimethylbenzene soil 4,690 ppb
1,3,5-trimethylbenzene groundwater 690 ppb
1,3,5-trimethylbenzene soil 2,100 ppb
naphthalene groundwater 850 ppb
naphthalene soil 16 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater 610 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) soil 39 ppb
toluene groundwater 26,400 ppb
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 6 ppb
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene soil 13 ppb
Vinyl Chloride groundwater 220 ppb
m-Xylene groundwater 16,300 ppb
m-Xylene soil 283 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   150ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 1,180ft
Plume Width: 415ft
Plume Thickness: 62ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   10ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

  fill material
Depth: 0-1ft bgs
1ft thick
  silty clay
Depth: 1-7ft bgs
6ft thick
  sand and clayey sand
Depth: 7-10ft bgs
3ft thick
Conductivity: 21.295ft/day
Gradient: 0.057ft/ft
  sand and sandy clay
Depth: 10-20ft bgs
10ft thick
Conductivity: 13.73ft/day
Gradient: 0.096ft/ft
  clay and sandy clay
Depth: 20-40ft bgs
20ft thick
Depth: 40-50ft bgs
10ft thick
Conductivity: 53.525ft/day
Gradient: 0.0132ft/ft

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

DNAPL Present

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Soil: EPA Region IX PRGs
Groundwater: SDWA MCLs


In Situ Bioremediation

Why the technology was selected:
Bioremediation was thought to be the safest and most effective short- & long-term remedy for both soil and groundwater.

Date implemented:
April 2002 (pilot test for enhanced bioremediation)

Final remediation design:
The remedial design consisted of twelve 4" injection wells and eight 2" pilot test monitoring wells installed to a depth of 18-ft. One injection well was placed in the source area with five others placed parallel to the plume width, just upgradient of the source area end, at a 10-ft spacing. The remaining six wells were placed throughout the plume length, near or offset from the plume centerline. These wells were spaced between 20-30 ft apart. The eight pilot test monitoring wells were placed along the length of the plume downgradient of the upgradient injection wells and cross-gradient to the plume length injection wells. A baseline sampling event was conducted in April 2002 to establish pre-injection conditions. In May 1002, the wells were injected with a solution of corn syrup, simple green, and vegetable oil. This was continued on a two-week schedule until August with a one-time injection of emulsified soybean oil taking place in December. Effectiveness sampling was conducted in August 2002 and March 2003. Excavation of soil within the source area occurred in December 2004. Approximate area of excavation, 22ftx22ftx12ft. Sodium lactate (Wilclear) was added to the excavation.

Other technologies used:
Excavation of soil within the source area occurred in December 2004. Approximate area of excavation, 22ftx22ftx12ft.

Results to date:
The wells with the greatest PCE impact (PCE baseline concentration greater than 4-orders of magnitude higher than the PCE MCL) indicated a 85-95% decrease by August 2002. The March 2003 data indicated that one of these wells, which is located within the source area, maintained a concentration similar to the August 2002 level. The other well, located slightly downgradient of the source area, indicated a rebound to baseline concentrations. Another well, located slightly outside the centerline between these wells, indicated a rebound to greater than baseline concentrations. The baseline concentration for this well was about 2-orders of magnitude higher than the MCL. Wells located about midway along the plume and up to the leading edge, indicated no PCE detections. Baseline concentrations for these wells ranged from MCL levels up to about 2-orders of magnitude.

Next Steps:
Activities planned at the site include nutrient injections over the next two years with periodic effectiveness monitoring. In addition, sampling is planned in the future to assess the remedy effectiveness.


Cost for Assessment:
  Cost breakdown unavailable at this time.
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
Total Costs for Cleanup:

Lessons Learned

1. Remedial designs that call for injections of nutrients using oil containing nutrient enriched emulsions should consider the separation of oil from the emulsion. The remedy for this site added nutrients via a soybean oil, maple syrup, and simple green emulsion and vegetable oil is now floating on top of water.


(Project Manager)
Shanda Hunt
Environmental Specialist

(Submitted By)
Pamela Franklin
Environmental Protection Specialist

Site Specific References

1.Preliminary Assessmnt Rpt, May 1992.
2.RI/FS report Jan. 2002.
3.SI Report, February 1993.
4.Source Area Investigation Report of
Findings Jan. 2004.
5.2002-2003 Groundwater Monitoring
6.File Information for TDSF 57-517


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