U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners Site Profiles

Washland Cleaners, Dickson, Tennessee

Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

This is a commercial property that operated as a drycleaner from 1987-1999. Site contamination is suspected to be related to operation activities which may include releases to interior drains and/or floor joints from spills associated with waste storage and/or the transfer of PCE from an AST to drycleaning cleaning machines via buckets or gravity feed lines.

Remediation Status: In groundwater monitoring

Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.

Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 250 ppb
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene soil 18.3 ppb
No corresponding contaminant groundwater 2.1 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater 5,200 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil 172 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater 82 ppb
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 6.9 ppb
Vinyl Chloride groundwater 15 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   40ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 162ft
Plume Width: 112ft
Plume Thickness: 40ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   24.5ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

  Deeply weathered brown to red clays with small quantities of silt to sand size particles and fine textured limestone and chert fragments increasing in both size and abundance with depth.

Conductivity: 0.01095ft/day
Gradient: 0.035ft/ft

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

DNAPL Present

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Acheive MCLs


In Situ Chemical Oxidation

Why the technology was selected:
The groundwater plume was concentrated in a relatively small area. ISCO was selected because it appeared to be a feasible technology for rapidly remediating a relatively small area of concern.

Date implemented:
May 3, 2004

Final remediation design:
Sodium permanganate (40%) was injected into 14 injection points from 14 to 43-ft bgs. The injection points were spaced to cover the source zone of the groundwater plume.

Results to date:
2 wells (MW-4 and MW-15) have shown dramatic decreases in PCE levels (1.2 ppm to 0.660 ppm; 5.2 ppm to 0.720 ppm)

Next Steps:
2nd ISCO injection on 02/15/05. Additional groundwater monitoring and a 3rd ISCO injection will be considered if needed.


Cost for Assessment:
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
Total Costs for Cleanup:
  Site in progress. Total costs are not available.

Lessons Learned

When injecting ISCO, add more volume than recommended by vendor to ensure complete coverage. When injecting permanganate, make sure personnel are wearing appropriate protective gear.


Drycleaner Environmental Response Program
4th Floor, L&C Annex
401 Church Street
Nashville, TN 37243


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