U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners Site Profiles

New Method Cleaners, Starke, Florida

Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

This is an active drycleaning facility that has been in operation since 1957. the facility uses petroleum drycleaning solvent which was formerly stored in two ASTs located just outside the building that houses the drycleaning operation. The facility is located in a mixed commercial/residential setting. Two service stations with associated petroleum contamination are located directly upgradient of the site. Contaminated groundwater associated with one or both service stations has migrated onto the New Method site. The contaminant source areas at the site are the two solvent ASTs and an UST.

Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.

Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 136 ppb
No corresponding contaminant groundwater 3.9 ppb
ethylbenzene groundwater 3.9 ppb
No corresponding contaminant groundwater 195 ppb
naphthalene groundwater 2.7 ppb
toluene groundwater 1.5 ppb
Vinyl Chloride groundwater 1.7 ppb
xylenes groundwater 7.5 ppb
xylenes soil 2,300 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   15ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 15ft
Plume Width: 25ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   3.75ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

  Clayey fine to medium-grained sand
Depth: 0-15ft bgs
15ft thick
Conductivity: 1.89ft/day
Gradient: 0.007ft/ft
  Fine-grained sand
Depth: 15-23ft bgs
8ft thick

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

DNAPL Present

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Groundwater: cis 1,2-DCE 70 µg/l, TRPH 5000 µg/l; vinyl chloride 1.0 µg/l; naphthalene 20 µg/l; toluene 40 µg/l; 1,2 dichlorobenzene 600 µg/l; xylenes 20 µg/l; ethylbenzene 30 µg/l; MTBE 50 µg/l

Soil: TRPH 340 mg/kg; total xylenes 0.2 mg/kg


In Situ Monitored Natural Attenuation

Why the technology was selected:
Monitored natural attenuation was chosen as the groundwater remedy, because chlorinated solvent degradation products were present and conditions were favorable for reductive dechlorination.

Results to date:
Groundwater monitoring was conducted until February of 2004. No contaminants were detected in groundwater in concentrations exceeding groundwater cleanup target levels during the last two monitoring events.

Next Steps:
A Site Completion Rehabilitation Order will be issued for the site.

Ex Situ Soil Removal

Why the technology was selected:
Excavation was chosen as the active remediation technology, because contaminated soils were accessible (outside the facility).

Date implemented:
Soil excavation was conducted in May 2001.

Final remediation design:
Additional soil sampling was scheduled to better delineate soil contamination. All soil contaminated with TRPH concentrations > 340 mg/kg was to be excavated to the water table.

Results to date:
Contaminated soil was excavated at the former solvent AST locations. During the excavation, a 300-gallon UST was encountered. This tank likely was used to store No. 2 fuel oil which was used to fire the boiler at the facility. An emergency response UST closure was conducted and the tank was removed. Contaminated soil was excavated to the water table over a 350-square-foot area. Approximately 1,400 cubic feet of soil was removed and the excavation was backfilled with clean fill.

Next Steps:
A Site Completion Rehabilitation Order will be issued for the site.

Cost to Design and Implement:
Design: $11,842 Soil Excavation/tank removal/soil disposal/tank dispoal/backfill: $40,848


Cost for Assessment:
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
  Groundwater Monitoring: $25,492 Site Restoration: $4,000
Total Costs for Cleanup:

Lessons Learned

1. Although this facility used petroleum drycleaning solvent, chlorinated solvents were present in groundwater. These are likely from spotting operations or from degradation of PCE used as a bactericide in soaps or detergents in the petroleum drycleaning solvent operation. Chlorinated solvents have been found in groundwater at a number of the petroleum drycleaning solvent sites in the program.

2. The presence of the UST could have been anticipated. USTs are often present at drycleaning facilities. As part of the site visit, the business operator should have been questioned about past operations and what fuel is/was used to fire the boiler and where it was stored.


Aaron Cohen
Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection
Bureau of Waste Cleanup, MS 4500
2600 Blair Stone Road
Tallahassee, Florida 32399

Pam Jackson, Contractor
WRS Infrastructure & Environment, Inc.
625 East Tennessee Street, Suite 100
Tallahassee, Florida 32308
(850) 531-9860

Site Specific References

Site Assessment Report, January 2000
Remedial Action Plan, March 2001
UST Closure Report, May 2001
Groundwater Monitoring Reports, 2001-2004


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