U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

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Hayward, J., T. Porter, F. Barranco, and J. Harwell. Seventh International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Monterey, CA; May 2010). Battelle Press, Columbus, OH. ISBN 978-0-9819730-2-9, Paper E-050, 8 pp & 19 slides, 2010

Following a release of JP-8 fuel at the Oasis Fuel Point site at Fort Drum, New York, treatability and field pilot studies were performed to evaluate the potential full-scale use of surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) for removal of free-phase and residual LNAPL in subsurface soil. A proprietary blend of anionic surfactants (sodium monosulfonates, dialkyl monosulfonates, and dialkyl disulfonates) provided a biodegradable formulation to mobilize the LNAPL and allow it to be pumped to the surface via extraction wells. Results of lab column studies with site soil, LNAPL, and groundwater indicated that >95% LNAPL removal could be achieved using an optimized surfactant formulation after only 1 or 2 pore volumes (PV) of surfactant flushing at surfactant concentrations as much as 10 times less than traditional applications performed in the 1980s and 1990s. The lab results were used to develop and formulate the SEAR pilot study, which was performed within a 15.2 m by 30.5 m recirculation cell using an array of 13 injection wells and 2 extraction wells. The estimated pretreatment volume of free-phase LNAPL present in the pilot cell was recovered completely, and LNAPL thicknesses observed in the majority of monitoring wells within the cell were reduced from several feet to non-detect. In the process, sufficient data were collected to evaluate the optimal surfactant formulation, step-wise injection strategy, LNAPL recovery rate, surfactant sweep velocity, and parameters illustrating chemical and hydraulic control. Based on the successful results of the treatability and pilot studies, full-scale SEAR is being designed for the site.

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