U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Electrokinetics: Electric Current Technologies


Electrochemical Treatment of Alkaline Nuclear Waste. Innovative Technology Summary Report
2001. U.S. DOE, Office of Science and Technology. DOE/EM-0560, 21 pp.

Electrokinetic Demonstration at the Unlined Chromic Acid Pit
1998. E.R. Lindgren, et al., Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. SAND-97-2592, 158 pp.

This report details an electrokinetic remediation field demonstration of a chromium plume beneath the SNL Chemical Waste Landfill.

Electrokinetic Extraction at the Unlined Chromic Acid Pit, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. Cost and Performance Report
2000. U.S. EPA, 11 pp.

Electrokinetic Remediation at Alameda Point, Alameda, California. Cost and Performance Report [A Demonstration of Electrokinetic Remediation]
2000. NFESC, Port Hueneme, CA. TDS-2084-ENV, 2 pp.

Electrokinetics at an Active Power Substation (Confidential Location). Cost and Performance Report
2000. U.S. EPA, 6 pp.

Electrokinetics at Site 5, Naval Air Weapons Station Point Mugu, California. Cost and Performance Report
2000. U.S. EPA, 16 pp.

Lasagna™ Soil Remediation at the U.S. Department of Energy's Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Cylinder Drop Test Area, Paducah, Kentucky. Cost and Performance Report
U.S. DOE, 22 pp.

Lasagna™ incorporates hydrofracturing, zero-valent iron, electroosmosis via application of direct current, and biodegradation. This patented technology was developed by an industrial consortium consisting of Monsanto, General Electric, and DuPont.

Sandia National Laboratories in Situ Electrokinetic Extraction Technology. Innovative Technology Evaluation Report
1999. Tetra Tech EM, Inc., Cincinnati, OH. EPA 540-R-97-509, 72 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoTechnical Report: Electrochemical Geooxidation Demonstration Project, E-1 Area, Kelly Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas
2000. ManTech Environmental Corp., Chantilly, VA. NTIS: ADA391050, 122 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoTechnology Status Report: In-Situ Electrokinetic Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soils
2000. U.S. Army Environmental Center. SFIM-AEC-ET-CR-99022, 30 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoFIRS (Ferric Iron Remediation and Stabilisation): a Novel Electrokinetic Technique for Soil Remediation and Engineering
2003. CL:AIRE (Contaminated Land: Applications in Real Environments), London, UK. RB2, 4 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoFinal Remedial Action Report for Lasagna™ Phase IIb: In-Situ Remediation of Solid Waste Management Unit 91 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky
2002. U.S. DOE. DOE/OR/07-2037&D1, 80 pp.

Electrochemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTS) Site Demonstration Bulletin
2004. U.S. EPA, Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. EPA 540-MR-04-507, 2 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoElectrically Induced Redox Barriers for Treatment of Groundwater
T. Sale, M. Petersen, and D. Gilbert.
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), CU-0112, NTIS: ADA438421, 187 pp, 2005

Closely spaced permeable electrodes can be installed through a ground-water contaminant plume in the format of a permeable reactive barrier, called an e-barrier. An e-barrier was installed at F.E. Warren Air Force Base in August 2002 in the path of a shallow alluvial TCE plume. This report documents results from a three-year collaboration between ESTCP and Colorado State University on the development and testing of this innovative electrolytic approach for managing redox-sensitive contaminants in ground water. According to the Final Report Addendum (2008)Adobe PDF Logo, the initial project was completed in March 2005, and two additional studies were conducted: screening of titanium-mixed metal oxide electrodes for e-barriers (2003-2005) and extended operation of the e-barrier field demonstration for TCE remediation at F.E. Warren AFB (2004-2006).

ElectroChemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTS): In Situ Remediation of Contaminated Marine Sediments. Innovative Technology Evaluation Report
U.S. EPA, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH.
EPA 540-R-04-507, 74 pp, 2007

Describes a demonstration of the ElectroChemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) process conducted between August 2002 and March 2003 at the Log Pond at Georgia Pacific, Inc., in Bellingham, WA. The demonstration was designed to evaluate the ability of the ECRTs process to reduce concentrations of mercury, PAHs, and phenols in sediments. The system did not perform as well as anticipated, due in part to system operational problems encountered during the course of the demonstration.

Electrokinetic Ferric Iron Remediation and Stabilisation (FIRS) of Hexavalent Chromium Contaminated Soils: An Ex Situ Field Scale Demonstration
L. Hopkinson, A. Cundy, and R. Pollock.
CL:AIRE: Contaminated Land: Applications in Real Environments, Research Bulletin 9 (RB 9), 6 pp, 2009

A novel, low-energy, natural analog-based electrokinetic system called FIRS (ferric iron remediation and stabilization) applies a low-magnitude direct electric potential between two or more sacrificial iron-rich electrodes placed at opposing sides of a mass of contaminated soil or sediment. The electric potential generates a strong Eh/pH gradient between the two electrodes, promotes anodic dissolution, Fe(0) and Fe(2+)(aq) migration, and forces the precipitation of ferric iron oxyhydroxides, hematite, goethite, magnetite, and ZVI at near-neutral pH values at the interface of the anodic and cathodic domains. The system uses approximately one tenth of the energy requirements of most conventional electrokinetic systems. In the feasibility trial, FIRS achieved significant reduction of hexavalent chromium in the target soils and performed at least as well as in the bench-scale studies. The system currently is being developed for field-scale application to heavy-metal contaminated soils and wastes in the UK in partnership with Churngold Remediation Ltd. The bulletin is available without charge on the CL:AIRE Web site to registered users (also free).

Adobe PDF LogoOxidant Dispersal in Tight Clay Formations Using EK3 Technology
Frisky, S.
REMTECH 2010: The Remediation Technologies Symposium, Banff, AB, Canada, 20-22 Oct 2010. Environmental Services Association of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada), 46 slides, 2010

EK3 is a process in which a low-voltage DC electric field is applied across a section of clay soil to disperse a water/chemical oxidant mixture within the formation, primarily via electroosmosis. Combining EK3 technology with injection wells, clay fracturing, and injection of chemical oxidant can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of chemical oxidant dispersion significantly. In a pilot project located in Regina (Canada), the EK3 technology was used to disperse a water/chemical oxidant mixture throughout a test plot of tight clay soil to treat hydrocarbon contamination. In addition to hydrocarbons remediation, the technology can be used to address contaminating salts and metals as described in an article posted by National Research Council Canada.

Successful Pilot Test of Electrokinetic-Enhanced Bioremediation (EK-BIO) as an Innovative Remedial Approach for PCE DNAPL Source Area
Riis, C., M. Bymose, E. Cox, J. Wang, D. Gent, and M. Terkelsen.
NORDROCS 2012: 4th Nordic Joint Meeting on Remediation of Contaminated Sites, International Conference, September 18-21, 2012, Oslo, Norway. 4 pp paper and 23 slides, 2012

Electrokinetic (EK) injection presents an alternative for efficient and uniform delivery of bioremediation additives (e.g., bacteria, nutrients) into low-permeability soil. A successful 74-day pilot study of this EK-bio technique for remediation of PCE DNAPL was conducted at a site in Skuldelev, Denmark. PaperAdobe PDF Logo and SlidesAdobe PDF Logo

Use of Large-Scale Electrokinetic and ZVI Treatment for Chlorinated Solvent Remediation at an Active Industrial Facility
Athmer, C.J.
Remediation Journal 24(4):41-51(2014)

A Lasagna™ system, which combines electrokinetic and ZVI technologies, uses a direct current electrical field to mobilize contaminants via electroosmosis and soil heating. The contaminants are intercepted and reduced in situ using treatment zones containing ZVI. Lasagna™ was implemented for soils contaminated with chlorinated solvents, including DNAPL, at an active industrial site in Ohio . The remediation systems were placed in tight clay soils beneath traffic areas without interruption to facility production. In the moderately contaminated soils around the actively treated source areas, a grid of ZVI-filled boreholes was installed for passive treatment of residual contamination. The active systems removed 80% of the TCE mass, while the passive ZVI borings continue to reduce the TCE. Cleanup goals have been met, and the site is now in monitoring-only mode to track contaminant attenuation. Additional information: 35 slidesAdobe PDF Logo

Adobe PDF LogoElectrokinetic-Enhanced (EK-Enhanced) Amendment Delivery for Remediation of Low Permeability and Heterogeneous Materials
Cox, E., J. Wang, D. Reynolds, D. Gent, M. Singletary, and A. Wilson.
ESTCP Project ER-201325, 204 pp, 2018

Electrokinetic (EK)-enhanced amendment delivery for in situ bioremediation (EK-BIO) via enhanced reductive dechlorination of a PCE source area in clay was conducted at Naval Air Station Jacksonville, Florida. The EK-enhanced amendment delivery technology entails the establishment of an electric field in the subsurface using a network of electrodes. The electrical current and voltage gradient established across a direct-current electric field provide the driving force to transport remediation amendments, including electron donors, chemical oxidants, and even bacteria, through the subsurface. The EK demonstration system consisted of 9 electrode wells and 8 supply wells located within a target treatment area measuring ~40 ft by 40 ft. The remediation amendments distributed by the EK system included electron donor (lactate provided as potassium lactate), pH control reagents (potassium carbonate), and a dechlorinating microbial consortium (KB-1®) containing Dehalococcoides. Project results showed that EK could achieve relatively uniform transport in low-permeability materials. Additional information: ESTCP Cost and Performance Report Adobe PDF Logo.

Ex Situ Remediation of Sediment From Serbia Using a Combination of Electrokinetic and Stabilization/Solidification with Accelerated Carbonation Treatments [Abstract]
Popov, N., S. Roncevic, N. Dudukovic, D. Krcmar, Z. Mihaljev, M.Z. Balos, and S. Dordievski.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research [Published 22 November 2020 prior to print]

Three ex situ remediation technologies were applied to Begej River sediments. Conventional electrokinetic treatment (EK) was implemented first to reduce the amount of contaminated sediment and enhance metals accumulation, followed by stabilization/solidification (S/S) to immobilize the accumulated metals. Two types of bio as immobilizing agents were used. Following treatments, sequential extraction procedure (SEP) and TCLP and DIN 3841-4 S4 leaching tests were used to assess risk. EK treatment reduced the amount of polluted sediment by half. TCLP and SEP performed on S/S mixtures after a 28-day maturation period indicated that accelerated carbonation decreased the mobility of critical metals. Moreover, based on the leaching tests, all prepared mixtures were categorized as non-hazardous and safe for disposal according to the relevant Serbian regulations.