U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Fractured Bedrock Project Profiles

Last Updated: December 15, 2005

Point of Contact:
Raymond J. Vaské
36 East Seventh Street
Suite 2300
Cincinnati OH 45202-4434 
Tel: 513-651-3440 
Fax: 513-651-3452
Email: Ray_vaske@

Active Dry Cleaning Facility
central area, IN


Groundwater is located in thick sand and salt stringers as well as fractures in lodgement till.

Targeted Environmental Media:
  • - Dense Non-aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)
  • - Fractured Bedrock


Contamination was transported to depths less than 5 meters. Concentrations of tetrachloroethene (PCE) above 1 mg/L in shallow groundwater extended over an area of 150 square meters.

Major Contaminants and Maximum Concentrations:
  • - Tetrachloroethene (24,000 µg/L)

Site Characterization Technologies:

No technologies selected.

Remedial Technologies:

  • - Bioremediation (In Situ)
    • Reductive Dechlorination (In Situ Bioremediation)
This project used concurrent application of abiotic, micro-scale zero-valent iron (ZVI) and biotic, electron-donor enhanced reductive dehalogenation remediation technologies. After the presence of bacteria that would degrade PCE in groundwater was substantiated, a patent-pending remediation compound-injection technology (HRC) was applied to the site. This technology was implemented in May 2002 and in September 2003.
Remediation Goals:

Not provided in information reviewed.


Favorable conditions were engendered throughout the area of application with reduction of PCE through trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-1,1-dichloroethene (cis-1,1-DCE) seen in several wells after 3 months. Significant reduction of cis-1,2-DCE to vinyl chloride was seen after 9 months. Recent monitoring indicates that vinyl chloride is degrading in several areas.

Lessons Learned:

Vaské, Raymond J.; Dennis P. Connair; Randy Jackson; Mike Scalzi; G.M. Zemansky. 2005. Enhanced bioremediation of tetrachloroethene in central Indiana glacial till. The Eighth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, Baltimore, Maryland. June 6-9.

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