U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Fractured Bedrock Project Profiles

Last Updated: November 23, 2005

Point of Contact:
Mark Kauffman
ENSR International
2 Technology Park Dr.
Westford MA 01886 
Tel: 781-589-3000 
Email: mkauffman@

Naval Training Facility
southeastern, MA


The site is underlain by approximately 6 m of poorly sorted silty sands. A pink equigranular and slightly porphyritic, fractured granite lies beneath the silty sands and the water water table is approximately 3 m below the ground surface.

Estimates of effective hydrulic conductivity in the bedrock treatment zone, based on slug tests and packer pressure tests, ranged between 4.3x10-5 to 2.6x10-4 cm/sec. Data from the bedrock coring and packer pressure tests were also used to develop estimates of effective fracture aperture (156 to 349 um) and bedrock porosity (1.03x10-3 to 2.8x10-3). Based on these calculations, the volume of water within the bedrock treatment zone was estimated to be approximately 36,000 liters. Given the observed hydraulic gradient across the bedrock treatment zone, the estimated time to flush one fracture-volume through that zone (assuming all of the fractures are connected) was between 88 and 243 days.

Targeted Environmental Media:
  • - Dense Non-aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)
  • - Fractured Bedrock


Prior to treatment, the main axis of the plume (PCE and VC) trended approximately 90 m, east to west, and extended to a depth of at least 30 m below the top of the fractured bedrock. The plume is between 20 and 45 m wide.

Major Contaminants and Maximum Concentrations:
  • - Tetrachloroethene (1,000 µg/L)

Site Characterization Technologies:

  • - Pumping Tests
  • - Fracture Trace Analysis
  • - Coring

outcrop surveys, bedrock core extraction, borehole geophysics, packer sampling and pressure testing and bedrock interconnectivity testing. In general, there was good coorelation among the geophysical measurements, core observations, and influence testing.

Remedial Technologies:

  • - Chemical Oxidation (In Situ)
    • Fenton's Reagent
The pilot test involved the injection of 14237 liters of 50% hydrogen peroxide, combined with ferrous sulfate and pH- buffering catalyst. Two injection events were performed, with overlapping performance sampling. Samples collected 30 to 45 days after each injection event showed CVOC concentrations below the treatment objective. However, samples collected 60 to 100 days after each event revealed significant rebound in most areas, at concentrations that approached initial conditions.
Remediation Goals:

This was a pilot test.


Presented at the University of Mass. Conference (Soil, Sediment and Ground Water) Amherst, MA 2005

Lessons Learned:

The injected oxidants primarily influenced the more transmissive fractures whereas the less transmissive fractures were less influenced. Geochemical data and calculations indicate that the peroxide and the catalyst may persist in the subsurface for prolonged (>200 days) periods thus complicating the assessment of rebound.

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