U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Fractured Bedrock Project Profiles

Last Updated: February 6, 2006

Point of Contact:
John Liskowitz
ARS Technologies Inc.
271 Cleveland Ave.
Highland Park NJ 08904 
Tel: 732-296-6620 
Email: JL@

Tinker AFB
Oklahoma City, OK


Weathered siltstone and poorly sorted sandstone

Targeted Environmental Media:
  • - Fractured Bedrock


Major Contaminants and Maximum Concentrations:
  • - Trichloroethene (var)

Site Characterization Technologies:

No technologies selected.

Remedial Technologies:

  • - Chemical Oxidation (In Situ)
    • Permanganate
  • - Fracturing
During this project, 3,530 gallons of KMnO4, at a concentration of approximately 5% by weight was injected into the target source zone. Prior to the chemical oxidant injection, pressures up to 450 psig were required to first initiate fractures within the formation. Upon completion of the fracturing step, liquid atomized injection (LAI) of the KMnO4 was performed. During the injection events, evidence of chemical emplacement was observed radially outward to 90 ft. Within one month after the injections were completed, greater than 80% reduction of TCE was observed in ground water. More importantly, little to no contaminant rebound has been observed within the pilot test area. A limited amount of rebound was observed along the up-gradient fringe areas of the pilot test area, presumably due to the influx of some contaminated ground water.
Remediation Goals:

This was a pilot test.


The test was completed in 2003.

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