U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Fractured Bedrock Project Profiles

Last Updated: July 23, 2007

Point of Contact:
Phillip McKalips
1218 East Market Street Suite 100
Charlottesville VA 22902 
Tel: 434-293-4039 
Fax: 434-293-2715
Email: pmckalips@

Closed Municipal Landfill
Unknown, VA


The geology of the site consists of fractured granitic gneiss with varying thickness of saprolite and clayey silt. Shallow, low-permeability soil and unknown bedrock fracture density with fracture connectivity conditions were also present at the site.

Targeted Environmental Media:
  • - Fractured Bedrock


Information not provided in the source cited.

Major Contaminants and Maximum Concentrations:
  • - Tetrachloroethene (0 µg/L)
  • - Trichloroethene (0 µg/L)

Site Characterization Technologies:

No technologies selected.

Remedial Technologies:

No technologies selected.

Injection tests were completed over a 0.5-acre test area at the site. Five injection wells and eight monitoring wells were installed. The five injection wells were each installed to a depth of 175 feet below ground surface (bgs); the eight monitoring wells consisted of four shallow each placed at a depth of 100 feet bgs and four deep wells installed at a depth of 170 feet bgs.
Remediation Goals:

Amendments such as sodium lactate, yeast extract and diammonium phosphate were injected in the ground water to enhance reductive dechlorination.


The status of the pilot-scale study was not indicated in the source cited.

Lessons Learned:

A key component of the pilot study was to characterize the aquifer and evaluate substrate distribution and overall injection efficacy during amendment addition before amendments were added to the ground water.

References: McKalips, Phillip D., Maverick Raber, and G.L. Kirkpatrick. Substrate Delivery for In Situ Bioremdiation in Fractured Bedrock: A Case Study in Central Virginia. The Ninth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium. May 7 - 10, 2007. Baltimore, Maryland.

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