U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Fractured Bedrock Project Profiles

Last Updated: February 5, 2001

Conducted or Conducting Characterization Studies

Point of Contact:
Ted O'Neill
2769 Thompson Avenue
Smithville ON Canada L0R 2A0 
Tel: 905-957-4077 
Fax: 905-957-4079
Email: toneill@

Former CWML Site (Smithville PCB Site)
Smithville, ON, Canada


The site is located on a flat lying glaciolacustrine clay plain which varies from about 4 to 11 m thick in the vicinity of the site. The underlying bedrock consists of dolomitic limestones (dolostones) of the Lockport Formation (about 50 m thick) and Decew Formation (2 m thick) which are underlain by interbedded limestone and shale of the Rochester formation (about 17m thick, becoming increasingly shaley with depth)


Immiscible phase contaminants (PCBs, TCE and TCB) have penetrated into the upper portions of the Lockport Formation to a depth of about 30m bgs. The lateral extent of the immiscible phase source zone is a circular area with a perimeter of about 900 m. A dissolved phase plume once extended about 700 m downgradient of the study; however, the installation of a pump and treat system has prevented further off-site movement of the dissolved phase plume.

Site Characterization Technologies:

  • - Borehole Geophysics
    • Natural Gamma
    • Caliper
    • Acoustic Televiewer
    • Video Camera Televiewer
    • Other
  • - Fluid Loggings
    • Temperature
    • Conductivity/Resistivity
  • - Flow
    • Tracer (Brine)
  • - Vertical Chemical Profiling
    • Packer Isolation
    • Cluster Wells
    • Multi-completion or -sampling port
  • - Fracture Trace Analysis
  • - Coring
  • - Tracer (dye) Test
  • - Other

1) Point source dilution has been used to measure groundwater flow.

2) Environmental isotopes have been measured at the site.

3) Geochemical sampling of groundwater.
4) DNAPL physical and chemical characterization including high temperature testing
5) Bedrock properties testing

New or experimental technology:   Yes

    Comments on effectiveness of new experimental technology:
    Point source dilution testing was effective. DNAPL chemical characterization was very difficult due to complex mixture of chemicals present.

Remedial Technologies:

No technologies selected.

Extraction wells

Monitored natural attenuation

New or experimental technology:   Yes

    Comments on effectiveness of new experimental technology:
    All technologies (except for existing pump and treat system) will need developmental work in order to be applied in fracture rock setting.
Remediation Goals:
  • Source Removal
  • Source Containment
  • Contaminant Removal
  • Contaminant Containment
Site currently categorized under a technology impracticability waiver:   No
General Comments:

ROD does not apply in Canada. For more information see web site at or contact the project office.

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