U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Fractured Bedrock Project Profiles

Last Updated: December 10, 2007

Point of Contact:
Michael J. Gelfell
14142 Denver West Parkway, Suite 35
Golden CO 80401-3190 
Tel: 303-231-9115 
Fax: 303-231-9571

Trichloroethene-contaminated site in New Jersey
Not provided, NJ


Beneath the site lies silty soil covering highly fractured siltstone, including sub-horizontal bedding plane fractures and near-vertical fractures, and shale of the Passaic Formation. The water table lies within the bedrock, approximately 30 feet below grade.

Targeted Environmental Media:
  • - Fractured Bedrock


Major Contaminants and Maximum Concentrations:
  • - Trichloroethene (0 µg/L)

Site Characterization Technologies:

  • - Borehole Geophysics
    • Other
  • - Coring
  • - Tracer (dye) Test

Sub-horizontal bedding plane fractures and near-vertical fractures with variable strike were discovered by borehole logging and coring. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and sodium bromide (NaBr) were used as reactive and conservative tracers, respectively. Tracer tests were used to develop a design, including oxidant mass and injection rate, duration, and frequency.

Remedial Technologies:

  • - Chemical Oxidation (In Situ)
    • Permanganate
The pilot test was conducted in April 2007. Sodium permanganate was injected at a concentration of 100 micrograms per liter and at a rate of 5 gallons per minute over a period of 6 hours once every 6 weeks. Pre-injection sampling provided a basis on which to assess trichloroethene removal and adjust the efficiency of the treatment program. Results were not provided in the reference cited.
Remediation Goals:

Not identified in the reference cited.

Lessons Learned:


Gefell, Michael J., Szuch, Darren A., Sperry, Kenneth L, and Kolodziej, Edward., Field-Scale TCE Oxidation in Sedimentary Bedrock: Extended Pilot Application Design and Implementation. Presented at the 2007 U.S. EPANGWA Fractured Rock Conference: State of the Science and Measuring Success in Remediation. Portland, ME. September 24-26, 2007.

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