U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Fractured Bedrock Project Profiles

Last Updated: January 1, 2011

Point of Contact:
Ellen Stein
290 Broadway
New York NY 10007-1866 
Tel: 212-637-4114 
Email: stein.ellen@

Frontier Chemical Waste Process, Inc. - Royal Aven
Niagara Falls, NY


In the overburden, groundwater flows through fill, glacial lacustrine, and basal till material. The overburden exhibits low transmissivity in comparison with the bedrock. The principal water-bearing zone in the bedrock aquifer is the upper 10 to 25 feet, which contains many closely spaced horizontal fractures interconnected with vertical fractures. Aquifer tests performed in these horizontal fracture zones indicate hydraulic conductivities of up to 200 feet per day. Fracturing decreases with depth. A downward gradient exists between the first fracture zone found in the upper 5 feet of the Lockport Dolomite to the second fracture zone that lies approximately 8 feet below the first.

Targeted Environmental Media:
  • - Dense Non-aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)
  • - Fractured Bedrock


The rock aquifer is contaminanted to at least 40 feet. Characterization below that has not been done.

Major Contaminants and Maximum Concentrations:
  • - 1,2-Dichlorobenzene (61,000 µg/L)
  • - 1,2-Dichloroethene (270,000 µg/L)
  • - Methylene chloride (13,000 µg/L)
  • - Tetrachloroethene (47,000 µg/L)
  • - Trichloroethene (22,000 µg/L)
  • - Vinyl chloride (26,000 µg/L)
  • - Chlorobenzene (21,000 µg/L)
  • - Benzene (15,000 µg/L)
  • - 1,4-Dichlorobenzene (26,000 µg/L)
  • - 1,3-Dichlorobenzene (19,000 µg/L)

Site Characterization Technologies:

  • - Pumping Tests

Remedial Technologies:

  • - Pump and Treat
A pump and treat system for the overburden and shallow bedrock was constructed in 2009.

A ROD for the deeper bedrock system was issued in 2010.
Remediation Goals:



The system is too new for trends to be established.

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