U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Fractured Bedrock Project Profiles

Last Updated: August 3, 2011

Point of Contact:
Geoffrey Brown
12 Mulliken Way
Newburyport MA 01950 
Tel: 978-465-1595 
Fax: 978-465-2050
Email: gbrown@

Residential Garage in Massachusetts
Not identified, MA


No site characteristics were identified in the references reviewed.

Targeted Environmental Media:
  • - Fractured Bedrock


Groundwater monitoring and fractured bedrock drilling showed that the impacts of the fuel oil release extended 14 to 20 feet below grade and 20 to 40 feet from the release point.

Major Contaminants and Maximum Concentrations:
  • - Fuels and distillates (0 µg/L)

Site Characterization Technologies:

No technologies selected.

Remedial Technologies:

  • - Chemical Oxidation (In Situ)
    • O2
    • Fenton's Reagent
    • Ozone
  • - Pump and Treat
  • - Other (Sodium persulfate)
Impacted soil beneath the house was removed through the use of a custom trench box and extracted by Vactor. Removal was followed by two rounds of in situ treatment by ENPRO and groundwater was captured through bedrock recovery wells and treated on-site. In situ treatment consisted of (1) eight applications of 700 to 1,000 gallons of surfactant/emulsifier together with Fentonýs reagent and (2) injection of 4,100 gallons of EnChem OxyZone (a combination of sodium persulfate, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and phosphates).
Remediation Goals:

MCP Category GW-1 Standards


The initial in situ treatment promoted dissolved petroleum constituent recovery and a large reduction of Extractable Petroleum Hydrogen (EPH) and Volatile Petroleum Hydrocarbons (VPH); however, EPH and BPH concentrations did not reach MCP GW-1 Groundwater Risk Standards. Therefore, the second in situ treatment was required. Initial findings show EPH and VPH reductions that are significant enough to achieve MCP Standards. Increased sulfate concentration and depressed groundwater pH were observed following the in situ applications.

Lessons Learned:

No lessons learned were identified in the references reviewed.

Brown Geoffrey A., Fiedler, Andrew W., Thibault, Roger P., Ball, Raymond G., and Elsenbeck, Jim. Evaluation of Two Methods of In-Situ Treatment in Fractured Bedrock at a Residential Fuel Release Site. Presented at the 26th Annual International Conference on Soils, Sediments, Water and Energy. University of Massachusetts, Amherst. October 18-21, 2010.

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