U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Fractured Bedrock Project Profiles

Last Updated: August 3, 2011

Point of Contact:
Galen Kenoyer
601 W. 5th Street
Suite 760
Los Angeles CA 90071 
Tel: 213-623-4175 
Fax: 213-947-4183
Email: galen.kenoyer@

Active Telephone Facility
Northern, CA


Sandy soils over fractured and weathered bedrock (siltstone, claystone, and sandstone - -which generally have low permeability).

Targeted Environmental Media:
  • - Fractured Bedrock
  • - Light Non-aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPLs)


Not identified

Major Contaminants and Maximum Concentrations:
  • - Diesel fuel (0 µg/L)

Site Characterization Technologies:

No technologies selected.

Remedial Technologies:

  • - Flushing (In Situ)
    • Surfactant
  • - Pump and Treat
  • - Multi Phase Extraction
Diesel fuel has persisted in the environment for 18 years even after the use of multi-phase extraction (MPE). For the pilot study, multiple injections of non-ionic surfactant via a central well were implemented while vacuum-enhanced MPE was performed at downgradient wells. Results of the pilot study included an increase in mass removal, compared to prior efforts performed without surfactants.
Remediation Goals:

Not identified in the references reviewed


Hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOC) typically have limited solubility in water because the contaminants partition and sorb onto the bedrock or soil matrix. The use of a surfactant-enhanced remediation approach allows contaminant mass to desorb and dissolve from the solid to the liquid phase and also causes water to flow through low-permeability soils and rock.

Lessons Learned:

Not identified in the references reviewed.

Kenoyer,Galen, D'Sa, Christopher, McLinn,Gene, and Ivey, George A. Surfactant Enhanced High Vacuum Dual Phase Extraction (HVDPE) Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Bedrock Aquifer - (In-situ Case Study). Presented at the 26th Annual International Conference on Soils, Sediments, Water and Energy. University of Massachusetts, Amherst. October 18-21, 2010.

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