U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division


Anaerobic Bioremediation (Direct)


Adobe PDF LogoEngineered Approaches to In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents: Fundamentals and Field Applications
EPA 542-R-00-008, 2000

This report provides an overview of the fundamentals and field applications of in situ bioremediation to remediate chlorinated solvents in contaminated soil and groundwater. The report describes how chlorinated solvents are degraded, how to enhance the process by the addition of various materials and chemicals, design configurations, and the typical steps taken to evaluate technology feasibility at a specific site. It also includes a list of technology vendors and nine case studies of field applications.

Adobe PDF LogoPrinciples and Practices of Enhanced Anaerobic Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents
AFCEE, 457 pp, 2004

This document was published by AFCEE, NFESC, and ESTCP to describe the state of the practice of enhanced anaerobic bioremediation. The text explains the scientific basis of enhanced anaerobic bioremediation and discusses relevant site selection, design, and performance criteria for various engineered approaches in current practice. The information is intended to help restoration or remedial project managers make informed decisions about enhanced bioremediation as a remedial alternative, select specific enhanced bioremediation approaches that are suitable for achieving remedial goals, and track the cost and performance of enhanced bioremediation applications. 2010 Addendum: Loading Rates and Impacts of Substrate Delivery for Enhanced Anaerobic BioremediationAdobe PDF Logo

Adobe PDF LogoIn Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Ethene: DNAPL Source Zones
Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council, 2008

This guidance focuses on chlorinated ethene DNAPL source zones in the saturated subsurface, where the DNAPL acts as a reservoir that sustains a contaminant plume in groundwater. The objective of this guidance is to provide a systematic understanding of the technical and related regulatory considerations for ISB of chlorinated ethene DNAPL source zones. It is based on scientifically sound and credible evidence supporting the safe and cost-effective application of ISB of DNAPL source areas. The guidance provides information related to site characterization requirements, application and design criteria, process monitoring, and process optimization.

Adobe PDF LogoPermeable Reactive Barrier: Technology Update
Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council, 2011

This document provides updated information regarding innovative approaches in applying PRB technology to treat a variety of groundwater contaminants. It is intended to serve as a comprehensive technical and regulatory resource when a PRB is being considered as an in situ remedy for contaminated groundwater. Case summaries are included to illustrate various PRB designs, contaminants treated, reactive media used, and cost data for implementing PRB technologies.

Adobe PDF LogoPrinciples and Practices of Bioventing Volume I: Bioventing Principles
Leeson, A. and R. E. Hinchee, 1996

This manual provides details on bioventing principles; site characterization; field treatability studies; system design, installation, and operation; process monitoring; site closure; and optional technologies to combine with bioventing if warranted. This first volume describes the basic principles of bioventing. The second volume focuses on bioventing design and process monitoring.

Adobe PDF LogoPrinciples and Practices of Bioventing Volume II: Bioventing Design
Leeson, A. and R. E. Hinchee, 1996

This manual provides details on bioventing principles; site characterization; field treatability studies; system design, installation, and operation; process monitoring; site closure; and optional technologies to combine with bioventing if warranted. This first volume describes the basic principles of bioventing. The second volume focuses on bioventing design and process monitoring.

Adobe PDF LogoTechnical and Regulatory Guidance Document for Constructed Treatment Wetlands
Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council, 2003

The purpose of this document is to provide technical and regulatory guidance to help regulators, industry, consultants, and technology vendors understand, evaluate, and make informed decisions about the use of constructed treatment wetland systems. The document describes the fundamental mechanisms of wetland contaminant removal and overall wetland functions. It also provides decision trees for each of the major constructed treatment wetlandapplications, designed to enable users to take basic information from a specific site and, through a flow chart, decide whether a particular wetland system is appropriate for the site.

Control of Biofouling: Lessons Learned From a Decade of Carbon Injection System Operation and Maintenance
Burnell, S., J. Spitzinger, P. Jin, J. Erickson, E. Hauber, and D. Nelson.
Remediation Journal 23(1):85-101(2013)

By understanding the fundamental mechanisms of biofouling, practitioners can make operational adjustments to enhance remedy performance. A combination of chemical and physical methods may be required for effective long-term operation of a carbon handling system; however, the operational costs can be greatly reduced and delivery efficiency increased if these methods are understood during the design phase. [This paper is Open Access via the "Get PDF" link.]

Adobe PDF LogoBest Practices for Injection and Distribution of Amendments
Rosansky, S., W. Condit, and R. Sirabian.
TR-NAVFAC-EXWC-EV-1303, 81 pp, 2013

Although there are many reasons for the sub-optimal performance of an in situ technology (e.g., chemical oxidation, chemical reduction, and enhanced bioremediation), a common underlying factor appears to be the inability to achieve adequate distribution and contact between the reagents, substrates, and target contaminants. This document presents current best practices for introducing liquid- and solid-phase amendments into aquifers to improve the likelihood of adequate amendment distribution. Lessons learned from three Navy case studies are provided.

Adobe PDF LogoStandardized Procedures for Use of Nucleic Acid-Based Tools: Recommendations for Groundwater Sampling and Analysis Using qPCR
Lebron, C., P. Dennis, C. Acheson, N. Barros, D. Major, E. Petrovskis, F. Loeffler, K. Ritalahti, C. Yeager, E. Edwards, J. Hatt, and D. Ogles. SERDP Project ER-1561, 12 pp, 2014

SERDP project ER-1561 focused on identifying and minimizing the causes of variability during quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) enumeration of genes of interest in groundwater, with the goal of developing of the knowledge needed to standardize methods for collecting, preserving, transporting, storing, and processing environmental samples for qPCR analysis. This document summarizes the project conclusions and recommends procedures for using qPCR analyses that will provide data of sufficient accuracy and reproducibility to allow site management decisions regarding bioremediation or MNA. Further details are available in the ER-1561 Final ReportAdobe PDF Logo (Lebron et al. 2014, 220 pages).

Adobe PDF LogoDemonstration of a Fractured Rock Geophysical Toolbox (FRGT) for Characterization and Monitoring of DNAPL Biodegradation in Fractured Rock Aquifers
Slater, L., F. Day-Lewis, J. Robinson, and T. Johnson.
ESTCP Project ER-201118, 166 pp, 2015

The demonstration evaluated (1) fracture network characterization using the fractured rock geophysics toolbox (FRGT); (2) autonomous monitoring of amendment delivery and subsequent contaminant (DNAPL) biodegradation using geophysical technologies that sense beyond the borehole; (3) application of an "informed" inversion strategy to improve the geophysical imaging of fractured rock settings relative to current off-the-shelf functionality; and (4) identification and monitoring of geophysical attributes as "soft" measures of progress of DNAPL biodegradation in fractured rock. The primary benefit of the toolbox is the ability to provide information on variations in physical properties and the fate of amendment injections into fractured rock beyond the vicinity of local borehole observations.

Adobe PDF LogoBiogeochemical Transformation Handbook
Darlington , R. and H. Rectanus.
TR-NAVFAC EXWC-EV-1601, 41 pp, 2015

In situ biogeochemical transformation (ISBGT) processes result in the degradation of contaminants through combined biological, mineral, and chemical pathways. This handbook can serve as a key resource in evaluating, selecting, and implementing the ISBGT technology. The handbook presents the fundamentals of ISBGT in a question and answer format; explores the mechanisms that contribute to ISBGT processes; discusses contaminants that can be degraded by ISBGT; identifies key considerations for enhancing, monitoring, and evaluating ISGBT processes; and emphasizes the importance of site characterization in recognizing and accounting for the contributions of ISBGT to natural attenuation.

Adobe PDF LogoApplying Bioaugmentation to Treat DNAPL Sources in Fractured Rock
Schaefer, C., G. Lavorgna, M. Annable, and E. White.
ESTCP Project ER-201210, 38 pp, 2017

This document aims to provide practical guidance and insight into the application of bioaugmentation to treat DNAPL sources in fractured rock with a focus on treatment of residual (i.e., non-mobile) DNAPL sources. Based mainly on insights attained through a field demonstration performed for PCE in fractured granite at Edwards AFB, the document provides (1) recommended approaches for source area identification and characterization, (2) guidance on amendment delivery and operation, (3) a recommended monitoring approach, (4) a strategy for assessing performance data (including rebound), and (5) a discussion of secondary groundwater impacts and biofouling.

In Situ Treatment Performance Monitoring: Issues and Best Practices
EPA 542-F-18-002, 2018

The purpose of this issue paper is to describe how in situ treatment technologies may impact sampling and analysis results used to monitor treatment performance and provide best practices to identify and mitigate issues that may affect sampling or analysis. This paper discusses eight potential sampling or analytical issues associated with groundwater monitoring at sites where in situ treatment technologies are applied. These issues are grouped under three topic areas: Issues related to monitoring wells (Section 2); Representativeness of monitoring wells (Section 3); Post-sampling artifacts (Section 4).

Adobe PDF LogoGuidance for Using Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) to Document the Biodegradation and Natural Attenuation of RDX
Hatzinger, P., P.K van Groos, M. Fuller, and N.C. Sturchio.
ESTCP Project ER-201208, 40 pp, 2019

This project developed and validated a CSIA method to confirm and constrain rates of aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of RDX at field sites. This technique can be utilized to provide critical data to support monitored natural attenuation as a remedy for treating this energetic in groundwater and to confirm the effectiveness of in situ enhanced bioremediation remedies when implemented.

Adobe PDF LogoEnhanced Anaerobic Oxidative Bioremediation
Chapter 14 in How to Evaluate Alternative Cleanup Technologies for Underground Storage Tank Sites: A Guide for Corrective Action Plan Reviewers
EPA 510-B-17-003, 79 pp, 2017

This chapter provides the basic information needed to evaluate a corrective action plan (CAP) that proposes the use of enhanced anaerobic oxidative bioremediation (EAOB) to treat petroleum hydrocarbons contamination. The evaluation process is divided into four steps accompanied by a checklist to evaluate the completeness of the EAOB CAP and focus attention on areas where additional information might be needed. Additional information: The complete UST CAP review manual

Optimizing Injection Strategies and In Situ Remediation Performance
The Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council Optimizing Injection Strategies and In Situ Remediation Performance Team. Report No. OIS-ISRP-1, 180 pp, 2020

This guidance describes how treatment ineffectiveness can be avoided through effective upfront characterization and design. It also provides the state of the practice based on firsthand knowledge and experiences for a broad audience, including environmental consultants, responsible parties, federal and state regulators, and community and tribal stakeholders. The document is divided into sections including remedial design characterization; amendment, dose and delivery design; implementation and feedback optimization, regulatory perspectives, community and tribal stakeholder considerations, and case studies.

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