U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

For more information on Optimization, please contact:

Kirby Biggs
Technology Integration and Information Branch

PH: 202-823-3081 | Email:


Optimization Stages:  LTMO

Optimization Stage:  LTMO Investigation Stage Design Stage Remedy Stage LTMO Stage

LTMO (Remedial Action, Long-term Response Action [LTRA] and O&M in the Superfund Program) involves comparing actual remedy performance to design expectations and or the optimization of performance monitoring programs. Recommendations are provided to improve protectiveness, reduce cost and facilitate site closure. To learn more about the related Superfund pipeline stages, visit Remedial Action Links to a website outside of Clu-In and Long-term Response Action and O&M Links to a website outside of Clu-In.

To see information about optimization for the other pipeline or optimization stages, visit Investigation stage, Design stage or Remedy stage.

Following are example types of data analyses performed during the LTMO stage:

  • Analysis of historical data plus trends in performance monitoring data
  • Interpretation of the conceptual site model (CSM) and identification of data gaps
  • Statistical analysis of groundwater monitoring data
  • Review of existing performance monitoring program for gaps and redundancies
  • Comparison of current chemical loading and/or other site conditions to conditions considered during design
  • Comparison of remedy performance to expected performance and reasonable expectations
  • Review of remedy component performance relative to expectations and expectations for competing technologies
  • Preliminary capture zone analysis for pump and treat (P&T) systems
  • Review of known receptors and potential for additional receptors since remedy design
  • Consideration of alternative remedy components and expected cost and performance
  • Consideration of supplementary or alternative remedies and expected cost and performance
  • Review of provided costs relative to expectations and cost for similar sites
  • Preliminary green remediation environmental footprint analysis

Additional information on optimization is available within Superfund Remediation Optimization:  Definition, Scope, and Approach. In addition, following are some of the resources used during a remedy stage optimization review.

Selected Resources

Click on a column heading to sort the table. Search for additional publications or resources by keyword or topic using the Search page.

  Title Document Number Type Date
PDF Hydraulic Optimization Demonstration for Groundwater Pump-and-Treat Systems Vol. II Application of Hydraulic Optimization EPA 542-R-99-011B Case Studies 1999
PDF A Cost Comparison Framework for Use in Optimizing Ground Water Pump and Treat Systems EPA 542-R-07-005 Factsheet 2007
PDF Cost-Effective Design of Pump and Treat Systems EPA 542-R-05-008 Factsheet 2005
PDF Effective Contracting Approaches for Operating Pump and Treat Systems EPA 542-R-05-009 Factsheet 2005
PDF Elements for Effective Management of Operating Pump and Treat Systems EPA 542-R-02-009 Factsheet 2002
PDF Engineering Controls on Brownfields Information Guide: How They Work with Institutional Controls; the Most Common Types Used; and an Introduction to Costs EPA 560-F-10-005 Factsheet 2010
PDF Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Integrating Renewable Energy into Site Cleanup EPA 542-F-11-006 Factsheet 2011
PDF Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Pump and Treat Technologies EPA 542-F-09-005 Factsheet 2009
PDF Green Remediation: Incorporating Sustainable Environmental Practices into Remediation of Contaminated Sites EPA 542-R-08-002 Factsheet 2008
PDF Overview of EPA's Methodology to Address the Environmental Footprint of Site Cleanup EPA 542-F-12-023 Factsheet 2012
PDF Remediation Optimization: Definition, Scope and Approach EPA 542-R-13-008 General Publication 2013
PDF Understanding Procurement for Sampling and Analytical Services Under a Triad Approach EPA 542-R-05-022 General Publication 2005
PDF Design Guidelines for Conventional Pump and Treat Systems EPA 540-S-97-504 Guidance 1997
PDF Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA QA/G-4) EPA 240-B-06-001 Guidance 2006
PDF Handbook of Groundwater Protection and Cleanup Policies for RCRA Corrective Action for Facilities Subject to Corrective Action Under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act EPA 530-R-04-030 Guidance 2004
PDF Institutional Controls: A Guide to Planning, Implementing, Maintaining, and Enforcing Institutional Controls at Contaminated Sites EPA 540-R-09-001 Guidance 2010
PDF O&M Report Template for Ground Water Remedies (with Emphasis on Pump and Treat Systems) EPA 542-R-05-010 Guidance 2005
PDF Optimization Strategies for Long-Term Ground Water Remedies (with Particular Emphasis on Pump and Treat Systems) EPA 542-R-07-007 Guidance 2007
PDF Options for Discharging Treated Water from Pump and Treat Systems EPA 542-R-07-006 Guidance 2007
Web Superfund Website - Five-Year Reviews N/A Guidance 2013
Web Superfund Website - Post Construction Completion N/A Guidance 2013
Web Superfund Website - Remedial Design/Remedial Action N/A Guidance
Web Brownfields Road Map Website - High Resolution Site Characterization and In Situ Technologies Promote Effective Cleanups N/A Online Resources 2012
Web Superfund Information System Website - Record of Decision System (RODS) N/A Online Resources
Web Superfund Website - Long-Term Response Action N/A Online Resources 2011
PDF A Data Integration Framework to Support Triad Projects N/A Technical Publication
PDF A Systematic Approach for Evaluation of Capture Zones at Pump and Treat Systems EPA 600-R-08-003 Technical Publication 2008
PDF Best Management Practices: Use of Systematic Project Planning Under a Triad Approach for Site Assessment and Cleanup EPA 542-F-10-010 Technical Publication 2010
PDF Brownfields Technology Primer: Requesting and Evaluating Proposals that Encourage Innovative Technologies for Investigation and Cleanup EPA 542-R-01-005 Technical Publication 2001
PDF Cost Analysis for Selected Groundwater Cleanup Projects: Pump and Treat Systems and Permeable Reactive Barriers EPA 542-R-00-013 Technical Publication 2001
PDF Engineering Issue - Indoor Air Vapor Intrusion Mitigation Approaches EPA 600-R-08-115 Technical Publication 2008
PDF Ground Water Issue Chemical Enhancements to Pump-and-Treat Remediation EPA 540-S-92-001 Technical Publication 1992
PDF ITRC Technology Overview: Exit Strategy - Seeing the Forest Beyond the Trees N/A Technical Publication 2006
PDF Implementing Systematic Project Planning N/A Technical Publication 2006
PDF Improving Pumping Strategies for Pump and Treat Systems With Numerical Simulation-Optimization Techniques EPA 542-F-04-002 Technical Publication 2004
PDF Technology Overview - Life Cycle Cost Analysis ITRC RPO-2 Technical Publication 2006
PDF Vapor Intrusion Pathway: A Practical Guideline ITRC VI-1 Technical Publication 2007

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